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CURS DE ENGLEZA IN 900 DE PASI

Daca doriti sa gasiti un anumit termen in cadrul acestui curs, scrieti-l mai jos si apasati butonul "Trimite" alaturat, daca nu doriti, puteti lectura acest curs in forma sa integrala. Deoarece in limba romana cuvintele au deseori anumite terminatii, programul e conceput astfel ca sa prezinte toate cuvintele care contin cuvantul cautat, de exemplu adverb: adverbul, adverbului, adverbe, adverbelor. Daca insa vreti un cuvant scurt e bine sa tastati un spatiu inainte si dupa cuvant. Exemplu sun(soare) fara spatiu va gasi si cuvantul sunet sau sunt.

Termen cautat:

1.ARTICOLUL


1. A este articol nehotarat pentru orice substantiv care incepe cu o consoana sau cu o semivocala (w, y sau sunetul iu)
An este articol nehotarat pentru orice substantiv care incepe cu o vocala.

un baiat - a boy
o fata - a girl
un unchi - an uncle
o matusa - an aunt

o fereastra - a window
un razboi - a war
un an - a year
un european - a European (eu se citeste iu)
o universitate - a university (u aici se citeste iu)
o umbrela - an umbrella (u aici se citeste ca a din padure)



2. Some se foloseste ca plural pentru articolul nehotarat.

In limba engleza, articolul nehotarat nu are plural.
In limba romana insa, articolul nehotarat are la plural forma niste.
Acesta se traduce prin some care in limba engleza apartine altei categorii gramaticale.

niste baieti - some boys
niste fete - some girls
niste unchi - some uncles
niste matusi - some aunts


3. The este articol hotarat pentru orice substantiv si la singular si la plural. La substantivele care incep cu o vocala, exemplu: uncle, aunt, the rimeaza cu cuvantul romanesc zi.

baiatul - the boy
fata - the girl
baietii - the boys
fetele - the girls
unchiul - the uncle
matusa - the aunt


4. Daca dorim sa accentuam un substantiv care incepe cu o consoana, the se pronunta ca in cazul substantivelor care incep cu o vocala.

Iata! Aceea este casa (cu pricina)! - Look! That is THE house!


5. Un substantiv la singular cu cateva exceptii trebuie sa aiba un determinativ, acesta poate fi un articol: a, an, the; un adjectiv pronominal (posesiv, demonstrativ, etc) my house = casa mea, this house = casa aceasta sau un numeral, ten cars = zece masini, in romaneste acest lucru nu e totdeauna obligatoriu

in dulap - in the cupboard
pe raft - on the shelf
in sertarul meu - in my drawer


6. Articolul se pune intre prepozitie si substantiv dar inaintea oricarui adjectiv.

un baiat inalt - a tall boy
fata inalta - the tall girl
in copacul inalt - in the tall tree


7. Partile corpului se folosesc cu un adjectiv posesiv daca actiunea e facuta de cel ce detine acel corp dar cu un articol daca actiunea e facuta asupra acelei persoane.

A fost impuscat in brat - He was shot in the arm.
L-a privit in ochi - He looked him in the eye
El a ridicat mana - He raised his hand
El s-a uitat la piciorul sau - He looked at his leg
Iesi cu mainile deasupra capului - Come out with your hands above your head


8. La meserii se pune a, an la singular atunci cand meseria face parte dintr-un predicat nominal (verbul propozitiei e a fi = to be) la plural insa nu se pune articol.
De fapt orice substantiv singular din cadrul unui predicat nominal cere articol in caz ca nu are alt determinativ (vezi ultimele doua exemple)

Sora mea e profesoara -My sister is a teacher.
Vreau sa fiu pompier - I want to be a fireman
Ei vor sa fie pompieri - They want to be firemen

She is a mother - Ea e mama
Shawn is a boy. - Shawn este baiat.


9. La popoare se pune the si adjectivul cu litera mare
iar pentru terminatiile sh, s si ch se foloseste singularul (adica nu se mai pune un s):

francezii - the French
elvetienii - the Swiss
americanii - the Americans
italienii - the Italians


10. Spre deosebire de limba romana, la substantivele folosite in sens general este necesar articolul nehotarat:

Ca prieten - As a friend
Ce om! - What a man!


11. Pentru materii nu se foloseste articol:

aurul straluceste - gold shines
matasea e moale - silk is soft


12. Substantivele abstracte nu necesita articol:

Iubirea nu moare niciodata - Love never dies
Inteligenta nu poate fi usor masurata - Intelligence can not be measured easily


13. La plural nu se foloseste articolul, daca se fac afirmatii generale

Cartile sunt grele dar trebuie sa iau cartile mari cu mine - Books are heavy but I must take THE big books with me.

Cartile sunt grele = Books are heavy (fara articol)
I must take the big books = Trabuie sa iau cartile mari (are articol)

14. In titlurile articolelor din ziar de multe ori articolele sunt omise

Un student incendiaza o casa - Student burns down house
Barbat muscat de un urs - Man bit by bear.


15. Articolul se omite in indicatii scenice

Hamlet isi pune intrebarea celebra - Hamlet asks famous question


16. Articolul ca si in romaneste nu apare la inceputul explicatiilor din dictionare

Peru: tara din America de Sud - Peru: country in South America


2.SUBSTANTIVUL


17. Ca si in romana substantivele se pot numara si se acorda in numar cu alte parti de vorbire (articol, verb)

un baiat, doi baieti - one boy, two boys
Un fermier are o ferma - A farmer has a farm
Some farmers have a farm - Niste fermieri au o ferma.



18. In engleza, substantivul nu se acorda cu adjectivul

un baiat inalt - a tall boy
niste baieti inalti - some tall boys

o fata inalta - a tall girl
niste fete inalte - some tall girls


19. In general substantivele nu au gen si chiar cand au, substantivul si adjectivul nu se acorda nici dupa gen, nici dupa numar, nici dupa caz.

Exemplu: adjectivul friendly ramane neschimbat.

un chelner prietenos - a friendly waiter
o chelnerita prietenoasa - a friendly waitress
chelneri prietenosi - friendly waiters
chelnerite prietenoase - friendly waitresses


20. Pentru substantivele colective(politie, counsiliu etc) desi substantivul e la singular, verbul se poate pune la plural:

consiliul nu ajunge la o intelegere - the council disagree (in loc de disagrees)

21. Ca si in limba romana exista substantive fara plural

fier - iron
apa - water
aer - air
etc


22. In cazul numelor de substante, substantivele nu au plural

apa - water
aer - air
fier - iron
lemn - wood
silk - matase
sange - blood


23. Substantivele abstracte nu au plural:

prietenie - friendship
bucurie - joy
lucrare - work


24. Substantive fara singular:

fizica - physics, politica - politics; acestea se folosesc cu verbul la singular:
fizica este o stiinta - physics is a science
foarfece - scissors, ochelari - eyeglasses (obiecte pereche)se folosesc cu verbul la plural: These scissors are sharp (Aceasta foarfeca e ascutita).


25. Cand un obiect pereche e folosit cu "a pair of" verbul e la singular.

There is a pair of eyeglasses on the table - Este o pereche de ochelari pe masa.


26. Ca regula generala pluralul se formeaza adaugand un s.

boy - boys (baiat - baieti)
girl - girls (fata - fete)

aunt - aunts (matusa - matusi)
uncle - uncles (unchi - unchi)


27. Daca substantivul la rostirea lui nu accepta s se pune o alta terminatie dupa caz.



28. Daca substantivul se termina in s la plural se pune es:

bus - buses (autobuz - autobuze)
class - classes (clasa - clase)
boss - bosses (sef, sefi)


29. Daca substantivul se termina in ch la plural se pune es:

church - churches (biserica - biserici)
patch - patches (petec - petece)
bench - benches (banca - banci)


30. Daca substantivul se termina in x la plural se pune es:

box - boxes (cutie - cutii)
fox - foxes (vulpe - vulpi)
mix - mixes (amestec - amestecuri)


31. Daca substantivul se termina in z la plural se pune es:

buzz - buzzes (biziit - biziituri) quiz - quizes (extemporal - extemporale)

32. Daca substantivul se termina in sh la plural se pune es:

bush - bushes (tufis - tufisuri)
crash - crashes (ciocnire - ciocniri)
eyelash - eyelashes (geana - gene)


33. Daca substantivul se termina in f sau fe la plural se pune ves:

calf - calves (vitel - vitei)
knife - knives (cutit - cutite)
wife - wives (sotie - sotii)


34. Daca substantivul se termina in doi f nu se pune ves la plural

cuff - cuffs (buton - butoni)
muff - muffs (manson - mansoane)


35. Daca substantivul se termina in consoana + y la plural y devine i si pluralul se face cu es:

country - countries (tara - tari)
fly - flies (musca - muste)
party - parties (petrecere - petreceri)


36. Daca insa substantivul se termina in vocala + y pluralul se face cu s:

day - days (zi - zile)
play - plays (piesa de teatru - piese de teatru)


37. Daca substantivul se termina in o pluralul se face cu es:

tomato - tomatoes (rosie - rosii)
potato - potatoes (cartof - cartofi)


38. Exista exceptii de formare a pluralului

man - men (barbat - barbati)
woman - women (femeie - femei)
child - chidren (copil - copii)
goose - geese (gasca - gaste)
mouse - mice (soarece - soareci)
ox - oxen (bou - boi)


39. Daca substantivul e neologism pluralul poate avea alta forma:

analysis - analyses (analiza - analize)
datum - data (informatie - informatii)

A nu se confunda data cu data din calendar. Aceasta se numeste date.
Exemplu: What is the date? - In cat santem azi? (What day is today?)


40. Unele substantive au pluralul identic cu singularul, dar verbul se pune in functie de numarul la care se refera contextul.

series - series
sheep - sheep (oaie - oi)
deer - deer (caprioara - caprioare)
There is a deer in the bush. - E o caprioara in tufis. There are deer in these forests - Sunt caprioare in aceste paduri


41. Cateodata pluralul se refera la mai multe tipuri din substantivul respectiv:

fruit (fruct, fructe) - fruits (tipuri de fruct) fish (peste, pesti) - fishes (tipuri de peste)
cheese (branza) - cheeses (branzeturi)
meat (carne) - meats (carnuri)


42. Genul substantivului:Daca substantivul prin inteles are un gen atunci pronumele care ii tine locul va fi he pentru masculin, she pentru feminin si it pentru neutru.

My friend is ten. He is in fourth grade - Prietenul meu are zece ani. El e in clasa a patra.
My sister is six. She is in first grade - Sora mea are sase ani. Ea e in clasa intai.
My room is small. It is a mess. - Canera mea e mica. Ea e dezordonata.


43. Unele substantive pot capata gen prin personificare:

Ship - Vapor, poate fi she


44. Genul poate fi format prin adaugarea sufixului ess la feminin. Dar numai pentru anumite cuvinte. Nu adaugati daca nu stiti ca acel cuvant accepta aceasta:

waiter - chelner, waitress - chelnerita
actor - actor, actress - actrita
lion - leu, lioness - leoaica


45. La pasari doar daca se vrea sa se precizeze genul se zice cock sau hen.

sparrow - vrabie
cock sparrow - vrabioi
hen sparrow - vrabiuta

parrot - papagal
cock parrot - mascul de papagal
hen parrot - femela de papagal


46. Exceptie de la aceasta regula:

peacock e paun in general iar peahen e paunita. Pea singur ar insemna mazare.


47. La unele animale se formeaza altfel genul (tot ca mai sus, numai daca trebuie precizat):

goat - capra: billy goat, nanny goat
ass - catar: jack ass, jenny ass


48. Nominativ:
Raspunde la intrebarea: cine? sau ce?
Dan merge la scoala. Cine merge la scoala? Dan.

Dan goes to school - Dan merge la scoala.
The boy goes to school - Baiatul merge la scoala


49. Genitiv:
Raspunde la intrebarile: al cui? a cui? ai cui? ale cui?
Copertile cartii sunt verzi.
Ale cui coperti sunt verzi? Ale cartii.

Copertile cartii sunt verzi.

The covers of the book are green
sau se spune si:
The book's covers are green


50. 's se numeste genitivul saxon sau posessive case.
E mult mai folosit decat forma cu of.
Este folosit mai ales pentru fiinte dar se foloseste din ce in ce mai mult si pentru lucruri.
De remarcat faptul ca of pastreaza ordinea din romana a cuvintelor, pe cand 's inverseaza aceasta ordine:

acoperisul casei

the roof of the house
dar
the house's roof
unde
roof = acoperis
house = casa


51. Genitivul saxon 's se foloseste: la singularul substantivelor:

my brother's friend - prietenul fratelui meu
the cat's kittens - pisoii pisicii
the garden's flowers - florile gradinii


52. Genitivul saxon 's se foloseste si la pluralele care nu se termina in s:

men - barbat, men's - barbatilor

Men's cloting is changing - Imbracamintea barbatilor (pentru barbati) se schimba


53. Daca substantivul e la plural si se termina cu s, genitivul saxon devine numai apostrof si nu se citeste

My friends' cars are out there - Masinile prietenilor mei sunt acolo
The girls' recital is tomorrow. - Recitalul fetelor are loc maine


54. Daca substantivul e la singular se pune 's chiar daca se termina in s:

My boss's car is out there (boss's se citeste la fel ca bosses)


55. Anumite cladiri (house, shop, office etc)se omit dupa acest genitiv saxon

la casa unchiului meu:
at my uncle's house - at my uncle's
la cabinetul doctorului
at the doctor's office - at the doctor's


56. Dativ: Raspunde la intrebarea cui?
Am dat cartea Matildei
Cui am dat cartea? Matildei

I gave the book to Matilda - Am dat cartea Matildei
I gave the book to my friend - Am dat cartea prietenului meu.
Am dat cartea lui Octavian - I gave the book to Octavian


57. Dativul in engleza poate sta si inainte si dupa complementul direct. Daca dativul vine inainte de complementul direct nu se pune to altfel se pune.
Complementul direct raspunde la intrebarea: pe cine? sau ce?

Give Rose my love sau Give my love to Rose - Transmite-i lui Rose dragostea mea.
I gave Octavian the book sau I gave the book to Octavian

Ce i-am dat lui Octavian? Cartea. - Cartea este complement direct.

58. Acuzativ: Raspunde la una din intrebarile:Pe cine? ce?
L-am vazut pe Octavian
Pe cine am vazut? Pe Octavian

I saw Octavian - L-am vazut pe Octavian
I fed the puppy - Am hranit catelusul
I skipped lunch - Am sarit masa de pranz


3.ADJECTIVUL


59. Adjectivul sta inaintea substantivului:

tall woman - femeie inalta
happy girl - fata fericita
white swan - lebada alba



60. Diminutivele in engleza se formeaza punand little sau small in fata substantivului
Small descrie mai mult marimea, deci pentru a arata afectiune folositi little

My little girl is in kindegarten - Fetita mea e la gradinita
I want to buy the small book, please. - As vrea va rog, sa cumpar cartea cea mica.


61. Adjectivul se pune intre articol si substantiv:

the old man - barbatul batran
the little boy - baietelul
a tall man - un barbat inalt
the short men - barbatii scunzi


62. Adjectivele nu au gen si nici plural

a tired waiter - un chelner obosit
a tired waitress - o chelnerita obosita
10 tired waiters - 10 chelneri obositi


63. Ca si in romaneste adjectivele pot fi folosite cu verbul to be - a fi (predicat nominal) sau cu alte verbe de legatura dupa cum veti vedea la capitolul verbe.

the cat is grey - pisica este cenusie
a grey cat - o pisica cenusie
children are curios - copiii sunt curiosi
curious children - copii curiosi


64. Adjectivele demonstrative: acest, aceasta, acesti, aceste totdeauna sunt insotite de un substantiv,.
Cand sunt singure ele se numesc pronume demonstrative.

Acest baiat e fiul meu - adjectiv demonstrativ
Baiatul acesta e fiul meu - adjectiv demonstrativ
Acesta e fiul meu - pronume demonstrativ


65. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acest/aceasta si pronumele demonstrativ acesta/aceasta este THIS

This boy is my son - Acest baiat e fiul meu
This is my son - Acesta e fiul meu

This girl is my daughter - Aceasta fata e fiica mea, Fata aceasta e fiica mea.
This is my daughter - Aceasta e fiica mea.


66. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acesti/aceste si pronumele demonstrativ acestia/acestea este THESE

These boys are my sons - Acesti baieti sunt fiii mei, Baietii acestia sunt fiii mei.
These are my sons - Acestia sunt fiii mei

These girls are my daughters - Aceste fete sunt fiicele mele, Fetele acestea sunt fiicele mele.
These are my daughters - Acestea sunt fiicele mele.


67. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acel/acea si pronumele demonstrativ acela/aceea este THAT

That boy is my son - Acel baiat e fiul meu, Baiatul acela e fiul meu.
That is my son - Acela este fiul meu

That girl is my daughter - Acea fata e fiica mea, Fata aceea e fiica mea.
That is my daughter - Aceea e fiica mea.


68. In engleza, adjectivul demonstrativ acei/acele si pronumele demonstrativ aceia/acelea este THOSE

Those boys are my sons - Acei baieti sunt fiii mei, Baietii aceia sunt fiii mei.
Those are my sons - Aceia sunt fiii mei

Those girls are my daughters - Acele fete sunt fiicele mele, Fetele acelea sunt fiicele mele.
Those are my daughters - Acelea sunt fiicele mele.


69. Adjectivele posesive (meu, mea/tau, ta/sau, sa/nostru, noastra/vostru, voastra, lor) totdeauna insotesc un substantiv.
Daca ar fi singure ar fi pronume posesive.

Adjective posesive:
Cainele meu e alb
Pisica mea e bej
sau
Al meu caine e alb - My dog is white
A mea pisica e bej - My cat is tan

Pronume posesive:
Cainele alb e al meu - The white dog is mine.
Pisica bej e a mea - The tan cat is mine.


70. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv meu/mea/mei/mele e my

My son is a teacher - Fiul meu e profesor
My daughter is a teacher - Fiica mea e profesoara
My sons are teachers - Fiii mei sunt profesori
My daughters are teachers - Fiicele mele sunt profesoare


71. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv tau/ta/tai/tale este

Your son is a doctor - Fiul tau e doctor
Your daughter is a doctor - Fiica ta e doctor
Your sons are doctors - Fiii tai sunt doctori
Your daughters are doctors - Fiicele tale sunt doctori


72. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv lui este his

His son is a doctor - Fiul lui e doctor
His daughter is a doctor - Fiica lui e doctor
His sons are doctors - Fiii lui sunt doctori
His daughters are doctors - Fiicele lui sunt doctori


73. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv ei este her

Her son is a lawyer - Fiul ei e avocat
Her daughter is a lawyer - Fiica ei e avocat
Her sons are lawyers - Fiii ei sunt avocati
Her daughters are lawyer - Fiicele ei sunt avocati


74. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv nostru/noastra/nostri/noastre este our

Our son is a barber - Fiul nostru e barbier
Our daughter is a barber - Fiica noastra e barler
Our sons are barbers - Fiii nostri sunt barbieri
Our daughters are barbers - Fiicele noastre sunt barbierite


75. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv vostru/voastra/vostri/voastre este your

Your son is a tailor - Fiul vostru e croitor
Your daughter is a dressmaker - Fiica voastra e croitoreasa
Your sons are tailors - Fiii vostri sunt croitori
Your daughters are dressmakers - Fiicele voastre sunt croitorese


76. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv lor este their

Their son is a painter - Fiul lor e pictor
Their daughter is a painter - Fiica lor e pictor
Their sons are painters - Fiii lor sunt pictori
Their daughters are painters - Fiicele lor sunt pictori


77. In engleza, adjectivul posesiv mai are o forma its - pentru obiecte
Pentru obiecte multiple insa, adica la plural, se foloseste, la fel ca pentru fiinte their.

That is my book.Its cover is torn - Aceea este cartea mea. Coperta ei este rupta.
Those are my books.Their covers are torn - Acelea sunt cartile mele. Copertile lor sunt rupte.


78. Dupa cum se vede, atunci cand punem my sau oricare din formele adjectivului posesiv, nu se mai foloseste articolul.

a dog - un caine
the dog - cainele
some dogs - niste caini
dar
my dog - cainele meu
your dogs - cainii tai
their dog - cainele lor


79. WHAT inseamna CE.

What is that? - Ce este aceea?
What day is it? - Ce zi este azi?
What is his name? - Ce este numele lui (Cum il cheama)?
What age is he? - Ce este varsta lui (Cati ani are)?
What is in a name? - Ce este intr-un nume (ce inseamna un nume)? - (Romeo si Julieta - Shakespeare)
What a man! - Ce om!
What are his parents? - Ce sunt parintii lui?
What kind of bread is that? - Ce fel de paine este aceea?


80. WHICH inseamna CARE si PE CARE
Cand nu e intrebare which se refera deobicei la obiecte sau animale.
In cazul oamenilor se foloseste WHO
Sigur, cand nu e intrebare, nu putem vorbi de pronume interogativ, in acest caz pronumele se numeste relativ.

Which car is Peter's? - Care masina e a lui Peter?
Which ones are your parents? - Care sunt parintii tai?
Which is better? - Care e mai bun?
dar ca pronume relativ:
That is the book WHICH I need. - Aceea e cartea care-mi trebuie.
That is the boy WHO is my neighbor.- Acela e baiatul care e vecinul meu.
The book WHICH I bought. - Cartea pe care am cumparat-o.
That which we call a rose - Cel pe care il numim trandafir(ce numim noi trandafir) - (Romeo si Julieta - Shakespeare)


81. WHO inseamna CINE
Who nu poate fi niciodata adjectiv, nu sta pe langa un substantiv.

Who are you? - Cine esti?
Who is there? - Cine e acolo?(la usa de exemplu)
Who is calling? - Cine suna?
Who are your parents? - Cine sunt parintii tai?
Who me? - Cine eu?
Who do you think you are? - Cine te crezi?
I am who I am - Sunt cine sunt


82. WHOSE inseamna AL CUI, A CUI, AI CUI, ALE CUI dar si AL CARUI, A CARUI, AI CARUI, ALE CARUI

Whose book is that? - A cui e cartea aceea?
The boy whose mother is an engineer - Baiatul a carui mama e inginer
Chidren, whose nose is long? Pinocchio's! - Copii, al cui nas e lung? Al lui Pinocchio!


83. SOME inseamna NISTE, CEVA, UNII, UNELE

I have some apples - Am niste mere.
Some apples are sweet but some are sour - Unele mere sunt dulci dar unele sunt acre


84. In intrebari SOME e pozitiv. Cel ce intreaba crede ca va primi un raspuns afirmativ.

Do you have SOME money? - Ai ceva bani?


85. In intrebari ANY e negativ - cel ce intreaba nu crede ca raspunsul va fi afirmativ.

Do you have any money? - Ai vreun ban, cat de cat?


86. La negativ se foloseste any sau no, nu se foloseste some. ANY inseamna in acest caz NICIUN, NICIO
Trebuie observat ca in romaneste substantivul care urmeaza lui niciun, nicio e totdeauna la singular pe cand in engleza acest lucru nu e obligatoriu.

I don't have any brothers - Nu am niciun frate
sau I don't have any brother - Nu am niciun frate


87. Any in propozitiile negative (nu interogative) cere ca verbul sa fie la negativ, in afara de cazul cand verbul insusi presupune o negatie (exemplu: to refuse, to deny).

I don't have any coins. - Nu am nicio moneda
I don't see any stars - Nu vad nicio stea
He refused to hear any explanations - A refuzat sa auda vreo explicatie.
He denied any wrongdoing - A negat orice faradelege.


88. NO se foloseste numai cu verbul fara negatie.
Any este mai des folosit decat no, in special cu alte verbe decat to be si to have.

I have no time - Nu am timp
I have no coins. - Nu am monede
I see no stars - Nu vad nicio stea
No good deed goes unpunished - Nicio fapta buna nu scapa nepedepsita
I see no evil, I hear no evil, I speak no evil - Nu vad niciun rau, nu aud niciun rau, nu vorbesc niciun rau.(Cele trei maimute cu mainile pe ochi, pe urechi si pe gura care simbolizeaza asa zisul om curat ca lacrima care nu poarta nicio vina.Cum zicem noi: N-am vazut, n-am auzit.)


89. In propozitiile afirmative ANY are intelesul de ORICE

Ask any question - Pune orice intrebare
Any help is appreciated - Orice ajutor e apreciat
Any book will do - Orice carte e buna (merge) (Vrem sa citim ceva, orice - nu conteaza ce)


90. Cu some, any si no se pot forma multe cuvinte noi apropiate ca inteles de aceste trei forme de baza.
De remarcat ca orice compus de-al lui no, pastreaza regula de a scoate orice alta negatie din propozitie. In engleza nu exista negatii duble.
Deasemeni orice compus de-al lui any se foloseste in propozitii interogative si negative in locul compusului echivalent cu some

someone - cineva
anyone - oricine
no one - nimeni

Someone is at the door. - Cineva e la usa.
Does anyone know the answer? - Stie cineva raspunsul?
Anyone can read. - Oricine poate sa citeasca
No one can open that door - Nimeni nu poate deschide usa aceea


91. somebody e la fel ca someone anybody e la fel ca anyone nobody e la fel ca no one
In general aceste variante somebody, anybody, nobody sunt mai folosite

Somebody is on the phone. - E cineva la telefon
Anybody can see the difference - Oricine vede diferenta
Is anybody there? - E cineva acolo?
Nobody can tell you what to do - Nimeni nu-ti poate spune ce sa faci.


92. where - unde

somewhere - undeva
anywhere - oriunde, nicaieri
nowhere - nicaieri

Where are you? - Unde esti?
I left my keys somewhere - Mi-am lasat cheile undeva
Anywhere I go, I am still Romanian - Oriunde ma duc, sunt tot roman(ca)
I can not find him anywhere. - Nu il gasesc nicaieri
sau
I found him nowhere


93. way - fel

someway - cumva
anyway - oricum
no way - in nici un caz

Someway, we will solve this - Cumva o s-o rezolvam.
Anyway I am glad you came - Oricum, imi pare bine ca ai venit
No way, am I going to do that! - In nici un caz nu fac asta!


94. day - zi
someday - intr-o zi, intr-o buna zi
somedays - in unele zile
one day - intr-o zi

One day e mai precis decat someday. De aceea se foloseste mai ales la trecut.
any day - in orice zi, nu are un inteles deosebit.
no day - nu exista.

Someday my prince will come - Intr-o buna zi imi va veni printul (cantecul din Alba ca Zapada)
Someday I will learn to ride a bike - Intr-o zi voi invata sa merg cu bicicleta
Somedays I walk to school - In unele zile merg pe jos la scoala
One day I decided to change my life - Intr-o zi am hotarat sa-mi schimb viata
One day the world will end - Intr-o zi lumea se va sfarsi


95. time - timp

sometime - la un moment neprecizat in viitor
sometimes - cateodata
anytime - oricand
no time - imediat

Drop by sometime! - Treci vreodata pe aici!
Sometimes I think about him - Cateodata ma gandesc la el
Come anytime. - Vino oricand
I will fix it in no time - Il voi repara imediat


96. how - cum

somehow - cumva
anyhow - oricum, in orice caz
no how nu exista (a nu se confunda cu know how care se citeste la fel si inseamna pricepere)

Somehow we will work this out (we will solve this). - Cumva vom rezolva asta.
Anyhow, he is your boss, just do as he says. - Oricum el e seful tau, fa cum iti spune.


97. thing - lucru

something - ceva
anything - orice
nothing - nimic

Something is wrong - Ceva e gresit (nu merge)
I will give you anything you want - Iti dau orice doresti
Nothing is for free - Nimic nu e gratis


98. Neither - nici, nici unul, nici una
neither...nor - nici...nici
Se foloseste cand e vorba de numai doua substantive.
Nu se foloseste in propozitiile interogative sau in cele ce exprima o negatie deoarece ar produce o dubla negatie
Se poate folosi si forma neither one

Neither boy finished the race - Niciunul dintre baieti nu a terminat cursa
sau
Neither one finished the race
sau
Neither finished the race
Neither am I done. - Nici eu nu am terminat
If you won't go, neither will I - Daca tu nu mergi, nici eu merg
Neither book was chosen - Nici una dintre carti nu a fost aleasa.
He is neither tall nor short, he is average - Nu e nici inalt, nici scund ci e mediu (ca inaltime).


99. Either - oricare (in afirmatii), nici (in negatii si propozitiile interogativ negative)
either...or - sau...sau
Ca si neither, se foloseste cand e vorba de numai doua substantive.
Se foloseste si in propozitiile interogativ negative si in cele negative si in cele afirmative
In propozitiile interogative se aseaza la sfarsitul propozitiei. Se poate folosi si forma either one

Either one can win. - Oricare poate castiga
Either you are done or you aren't - Sau ai terminat sau n-ai terminat.
I am not asleep either - Nici eu nu dorm.
She didn't come either? - Nici ea nu a venit?


100. Both - amandoi, amandoua

Both runners finished the race - Amandoi alergatorii au terminat cursa
They were both exhausted - Erau amandoi epuizati


101. None - niciunul, niciuna
Este echivalentul lui neither cand se refera la mai mult de doua substantive
Cand se refera la mai mult de doua substantive nu poate fi folosit in combinatia nici...nici

None of my friends called - Nici unul dintre prietenii mei nu a sunat.


102. All - tot, toata, toti, toate, tuturor
all the time sau always inseamna totdeauna

All this land is the farmer's - Tot acest pamant este al fermierului.
A nation that provides liberty and justice for all - O tara care ofera libertate si dreptate pentru toti.
I told all, to leave. - Le-am spus la toti (tuturor) sa plece.
All is well that ends well - Totu-i bine cand se termina cu bine (Shaskespeare)
All gave some, some gave all - Toti au dat ceva, unii au dat tot (despre soldatii care mor in razboi)
'You may fool all the people some of the time, you can even fool some of the people all of the time, but you cannot fool all of the people all the time.' - Poti sa-i pacalesti pe toti oameni cateodata, poti chiar sa-i pacalesti pe unii oamenii totdeauna, dar nu poti sa-i pacalesti pe toti oamenii totdeauna. - Abraham Lincoln

some of the people = some people
some of the time = sometimes
all of the people = all the people


103. A few - cativa, cateva
A few are o nuanta de optimism.

We still have a few customers - Avem inca cativa clienti


104. few - cativa, cateva
Subliniaza faptul ca e un numar mic, aproape deloc.

We have few customers - Avem (doar) cativa cumparatori


105. Asa cum se vede, a few si few folosesc substantive aflate la plural.
Si se folosesc in cazuri de multimi numarabile
In celelalte cazuri, de multimi nenumarabile, se foloseste a little respectiv little

A little sunlight - Putin soare A few sunny days - Cateva zile insorite.


106. A little inseamna putin
Se foloseste in cazul unor multimi nenumarabile, si in sens pozitiv.

We have a little suger left, help yourself! - Mai avem putin zahar, serveste-te!
dar
We have a few crackers left, help yourself! - Mai avem cativa biscuiti, serveste-te!


107. Little inseamna putin
Se foloseste in cazul unor multimi nenumarabile, si in sens negativ.
deasemeni
Inseamna mic fara sens negativ

We have little time left before the tornado is here - Mai avem foarte putin timp pana sa ajunga tornada aici.
dar
I have a little girl - Am o fetita


108. Each - fiecare
Every - fiecare
De multe ori pot fi ambele folosite.

There is a table in each room - Este o masa in fiecare camera
sau
There is a table in every room - Este o masa in fiecare camera


109. Each considera lucrurile pe rand, fiecare in parte
Each subliniaza diferentele
Se foloseste pentru numere mici

Analyze each sentence carefully - Analizeaza fiecare propozitie cu atentie
There were ten cars, each one was a different color - Erau zece masini, fiecare de alta culoare
Each wave was higher than the one before - Fiecare val era mai inalt decat cel dinainte.
Each child is special - Fiecare copil este deosebit


110. Every (fiecare) este pentru numere mari si are sensul de toate, de orice.
Si in romaneste tot omul inseamna fiecare om.

Every face tells a story - Fiecare chip spune o poveste
Every dog has his day - Orice caine are ziua sa (proverb)
Every child needs to look at the blackboard - Fiecare copil/toti copiii trebuie sa se uite la tabla
I solved every problem in the book - Am rezolvat toate problemele din carte


111. Every, nu each arata cat de des se intampla ceva

The clock kept ringing every ten minutes - Ceasul suna la fiecare zece minute.
la fel se zice:
Every year, every two weeks - in fiecare an, la fiecare doua saptamani etc


112. Each poate sta pe langa un substantiv (ca adjectiv) sau poate sa nu stea (ca pronume)

Buy one of each - Cumpara una din fiecare (pronume)
The children were each given candy - Copiii au primit toti bomboane
sau (pronume)
Each child was given candy - Fiecare copil a primit bomboane. (adjectiv)


113. Every insa cere totdeauna un substantiv, sau cuvantul one.
Ca si some, any si no, every este baza pentru o multime de alte cuvinte.

everything - tot
everyday - in fiecare zi
everywhere - peste tot
everytime - de fiecare data
everybody - toata lumea
everyone - fiecare (persoana)


114. thing - lucru
everything - toate lucrurile, tot, totul

Everything is ready - Totul este gata
Everything fell into place - Totul s-a lamurit, a cazut in locasul sau (expresie)
Everything is ok - Totul este bine.>br> I'll tell you everything I know - Iti spun tot ce stiu


115. day - zi
everyday - zilnic
Se pune numai la sfarsitul propozitiei


I see him everyday - Il vad zilnic
I drink milk everyday - Beau zilnic lapte


116. where - unde
everywhere - peste tot

I looked for my watch everywhere - Mi-am cautat ceasul peste tot
People everywhere are the same - Oamenii peste tot sunt la fel


117. time - timp
everytime - de cate ori

Everytime I think of Lisa, I cry - De cate ori ma gandesc la Lisa, plang
That happens everytime I dial the number - Asta se intampla de cate ori formez numarul.


118. body - corp
everybody - toata lumea, toti, toate

Everybody este opusul lui nobody (nimeni)

In Romania everybody speaks Romanian - In Romania toata lumea vorbeste romaneste.
Everybody wants to be a cat - Toata lumea vrea sa fie pisica


119. Everyone e sinonim cu everybody
Everyone se refera deci la oameni.
Everyone cu acest inteles se scrie intr-un cuvant.

I'm asking everyone to donate some money - Cer tuturor sa doneze niste bani.


120. Every one scris in doua cuvinte se poate folosi si pentru lucruri cu intelesul de fiecare.
One se foloseste ca sa tina locul substantivului.

He is invited to lots of parties and he goes to every one. - E invitat la multe petreceri si se duce la fiecare (adica la toate).
Every one aici inseamna every party.


121. Every one of si each of inseamna fiecare dintre
Each of nu trebuie confundat cu one of each care inseamna unul din fiecare.
Sau cu one for each - unul pentru fiecare.

Every one of you must be brave in battle - Fiecare dintre voi trebuie sa fie curajos in batalie
Each (one) of us has a destiny. - Fiecare dintre noi are un destin
Here is the candy. Please take one of each kind. - Iata bomboanele. Te rog ia cate un fel din fiecare.
We have a toy for each child - Avem cate o jucarie pentru fiecare copil.


122. Each and every e un mod emfatic de a spune tot
Each se refera la particular
Every se refera la general
Deci impreuna arata tot substantivul, in intregimea sa.

Each and every soldier must be ready to die for his country - Fiecare soldat trebuie sa fie gata sa moara pentru tara sa
Each and every building needs to withstand earthquakes - Fiecare cladire trebuie sa reziste la cutremure


123. Diferentele dintre each, every si all

  • Each se refera la fiecare individ fara sa tina seama de grup
  • Every se refera la fiecare individ din cadrul grupului.
  • All se refera la toti vazuti ca grup - intregul grup.

I ate all of the bread - Am mancat toata painea.
I ate every bread - Am mancat fiecare paine, toate painile (din cos de exemplu)
deasemeni
All I've had was bread - Inseamna tot ce am macat a fost paine. (Nu am mancat decat paine)
Everything I had was bread - Inseamna ca fiecare mancare a fost din paine.


124. All se foloseste cu o prepozitie, altfel se refera la toti membri din univers al acelui substantiv.
Every cere un substantiv dupa el (e adjectiv).

All dogs are mean - Toti cainii (de pe pamant) sunt rai
No, all of your dogs are mean - Nu, toti cainii tai sunt rai
Every dog I have is from an animal sheler - Fiecare caine pe care il am e de la un adapost opentru animale.
Each one was probably ill-treated in the past - Fiecare a fost probabil prost tratat in trecut.
Caring is all about patience. - Ingrijitul este in intregime legat de rabdare.
All for one and one for all! - Unul pentru toti, toti pentru unul.


125. Other - alt, alta, alti, alte
Other nearticulat daca sta pe langa un substantiv acesta e la plural

I also have other ideas - Am si alte idei
Other cars are faster - Alte masini sunt mai iuti.


126. The other - celalalt, cealalta, ceilalti, celelalte.
The other daca sta pe langa un substantiv acesta poate fi si la singular si la plural.

I took the other coat. - Am luat haina cealalta.
dar si
I took my other coat - Mi-am luat haina cealalta
The other coats I have are too warm - Celelalte haine pe care le am sunt prea calduroase


127. Daca the other nu sta pe langa un substantiv se pune cuvantul "one" optional.

The other wallpaper is brown - Celalalt tapet e maron
The other one is brown - Celalalt (decat cel despre care e vorba) e maron.
The other is brown.


128. Another - un alt, o alta

I want another book - Vreau o alta carte
I want the other book - Vreau cartea cealalta
I want other books - Vreau alte carti
I want the other books - Vreau celelalte carti


129. Others - altii, the others - ceilalti
Others e NUMAI pronume, adica nu poate fi urmat de un substantiv, de aceea are un s, ca sa indice pluralul, in lipsa subtantivului.

Others want this piece of pie, I don't. - Altii vor bucata asta de placinta, nu eu.
I hope the others liked it too - Sper ca si celorlalti le-a placut


130. In romaneste spunem: Eu te vad pe tine.
S-au folosit doua pronume la acuzativ: te si pe tine.
In limba engleza nu e necesar sa se puna doua pronume la acuzativ
Propozitia de mai sus in engleza ar fi: Eu vad pe tine adica I see you.

Tu vezi pe mine - You see me
tot asa
Eu le vreau pe celelalte se transforma in Eu vreau celelalte - I want the others


131. Bun - mai bun - cel mai bun
Reprezinta gradele de comparatie ale adjectivelor
- mai bun se numeste comparativ
- cel mai bun se numeste superlativ
Ca si in romana in engleza comparativul poate fi:
- de inferioritate
- de egalitate
- de superioritate

O pasare mai putin frumoasa ca papagalul este porumbelul.- inferioritate
O pasare la fel de frumoasa ca papagalul e porumbelul.- egalitate
0 pasare mai frumoasa ca papagalul e porumbelul.- superioritate


132. Vom studia intai comparatia de superioritate:
Cel mai raspandit caz e cel al comparatiei Saxone:

smart - smarter - the smartest
destept - mai destept - cel mai destept


133. Comparatia saxona se intalneste la adjectivele monosilabice

Exemple

red - redder - the reddest -> rosu - mai rosu - cel mai rosu
big - bigger - the biggest -> inalt
small - smaller - the smallest -> mic
thick - gros
thin - subtire
old - batran
young - tanar
tall - inalt
short - scund
fat - gras
fast - rapid
slow - incet
few - putini
hot - fierbinte
cold - rece, frig
etc


134. Daca ultima consoana e precedata de o vocala scurta ultima consoana se dubleaza. Daca ultima consoana e precedata de doua vocale automat ultima vocala nu e scurta.

red - redder - the reddest
big - bigger - the biggest
dar
fair - fairer - the fairest
soon - sooner - the soonest

The biggest elephant in the world - Cel mai mare elefant din lume


135. Daca adj se termina in e, nu se pun doi e

cute - cuter - cutest -> scumpel
large - larger - the largest -> voluminos


136. Pentru adjectivele de doua silabe terminate in y, y se transforma in i

skinny - skinnier - the skinniest - slab
funny - funnier - the funniest - nostim
crafty - craftier - the craftiest - viclean


137. Pentru adjectivele lungi se foloseste comparatia franceza

interesting - more interesting - the most interesting
terrible - more terrible - the most terrible

My book is more interesting than Peter's
But the most interesting book is Tom's


138. Unele adjective au comparatie neregulata

good - bun
bad - rau
little - putin
few - putini
much - mult
many - multi
far - departe


139. good - better - the best -> bun - mai bun - cel mai bun

This is a good drawing - Aceasta e un desen bun
This drawing is better than that one - Acest desen e mai bun decat acela.
Erin makes the best drawings - Erin face desenele cele mai bune.


140. bad - worse - the worst -> rau - mai rau - cel mai rau
bad inseamna si slab intr-o indeletnicire

Bad teachers are everywhere - Profesori slabi sunt peste tot
Jeff is a worse teacher than others - Jeff e un profesor mai slab decat altii
But he probably is not the worst teacher - Dar probabil ca nu e cel mai slab profesor


141. little - less - the least -> putin - mai putin - cel mai putin

We had little rain this year - Am avut putina ploaie anul asta
Yes, but last year we had less - Da dar anul trecut am avut mai putina
I know, and two years ago we had the least rain in history - Stiu, si acum doi ani am avut cea mai putina ploaie din istorie.


142. Desi a little si little, a few si few etc
Nu inseamna chiar acelasi lucru, gradele lor de comparatie sunt la fel

We had a little rain this year
Yes, last year we had less
inseamna
A plouat putin (adica un pic) anul asta
Da, anul trecut a fost mai putina (ploaie)
si
We had little rain this year
But, last year we had even less
inseamna
A plouat putin anul asta
Dar anul trecut am avut si mai putina (ploaie)


143. Pentru a sublinia ideea

la comparativ se zice
than the others - decat ceilalti
iar
la superlativ se zice
of all - dintre toti

This skirt is longer than the others - Aceasta fusta e mai lunga decat celelalte
sau
This skirt is longer than the other skirts - Aceasta fusta e mai lunga decat celalte fuste
iar
This is the longest skirt of all - Aceasta este cea mai lunga fusta
This is the longest of all skirts - Aceasta e cea mai lunga dintre toate fustele

sau
This skirt is longer than the other skirts - sau


144. few - fewer - fewest -> putini - mai putini - cei mai putini

Desi forma acestui adjectiv e regulata, il prezentam la un loc cu adjectivele neregulate little, much si many

He has few friends - El are putini prieteni
Yes, but he has fewer enemies - Da, dar el are si mai putini dusmani I think he has the fewest friends and the fewest enemies.


145. much - more - the most -> mult - mai mult - cel mai mult

My book is more interesting than Peter's - Cartea mea e mai interesanta decat a lui Peter
My book is the most interesting in the library - Cartea mea e cea mai interesanta de la biblioteca


146. many - more - the most -> multi - mai multi - cei mai multi

Michael made some mistakes - Michael a facut niste greseli.
Yes, but Peter made more - Da, dar Peter a facur mai multe
Kevin made the most mistakes of all. - Kevin a facut cele mai multe greseli dintre ei toti.


147. Foarte important! more si most au fiecare prin urmare doua intelesuri

more = mai inaintea unui adjectiv: more intelligent -> mai inteligent
more = mai mult inaintea unui substantiv: more water -> mai multa apa

most = cel mai inaintea unui adjectiv: the most intelligent -> cel mai inteligent
most = cel mai mult inaintea unui substantiv: the most water -> cea mai multa apa

Cei ce invata engleza, deseori zic grest mai mult, mai multa, mai multi, mai multe, cei mai multi etc.


148. far - farther - the farthest -> departe - mai departe - cel mai departe

You are far from the truth - Esti departe de adevar
His answer is even farther from the truth - Raspunsul lui e si mai departe de adevar
This lake is the farthest one from the forest - Acest lac e el mai departat de padure


149. Alte exceptii:
Cateva adjective de doua silabe, care nu se termina in y, primesc totusi -er, -est.

quiet - quieter - the quietest -> linistit - mai linistit - cel mai linistit
narrow - narrower - the narrowest -> ingust - mai ingust - cel mai ingust


150. Much - se foloseste cu multimi nenumarabile
In engleza moderna, se foloseste in propozitii interogative si negative
In propozitiile afirmative se inlocuieste cu a lot

Is there much work to be done? - E multa munca de facut?
He doesn't know much. - El nu stie prea mult
dar
I have a lot of work to do. - Am multa munca de facut.


151. Many - se foloseste cu multimi numarabile
Se foloseste in propozitii interogative si negative.
In propozitiile afirmative se poate inlocui cu a lot of dar se foloseste si many of sau many, dupa context

Are there many coins in the drawer? - Sunt multi banuti in sertar?
There are not many lion tamers in the world - Nu sunt multi imblanzitori de lei in lume

There are a lot of coins in the drawer - Sunt multi banuti in sertar.


152. Observatie
Pentru much se foloseste verbul la singular
Pentru many se foloseste verbul la plural

There isn't much water left - Nu mai e multa apa ramasa
There aren't many wolves left - Nu mai sunt multi lupi


153. In propozitii afirmative pe langa a lot of se foloseste many of

Many of my friends are abroad - Multi din prietenii mei sunt in strainatate
Many of my friends are not abroad - Multi din prietenii mei nu sunt in strainatate
Are many of your friends abroad? - Sunt multi din prietenii tai sunt in strainatate?


154. so much - atata

So much work needs to be done - Atata munca mai e de facut


155. so many - atatia, atatea

So many people nowadays are tired - Atatia oameni in ziua de azi sunt obositi


156. much more - mult mai mult

Much more time is needed - Mult mai mult timp e necesar


157. many more - mult mai multi

Nowadays, many more people go to college - In ziua de azi, mult mai multi oameni merg la facultate


158. so much...that: atat, atata...incat

So much time has passed that he may not remember you - Atata timp a trecut incat s-ar putea sa nu-si aminteasca de tine


159. so many...that - atati, atatia...incat

So many leaves have fallen that the ground is a carpet of leaves. - Atatea frunze au cazut incat pamantul e un covor de frunze


160. In raspunsuri, afirmatii legate de sentimente se foloseste very much

I like it very much - Imi place foarte mult
Thank you, very much - Multumesc foarte mult.


4.PRONUMELE


161. I - Eu
I se scrie totdeauna cu litera mare, indiferent de locul din propozitie.
.

Eu mananc - I eat
That is where I went - Acolo e locul unde am fost.



162. You - Tu, Voi
Si tu si voi in englezeste se zic la fel.
Cateodata se intelege din context daca e tu sau voi, cateodata nu.
De aceea se foloseste de multe ori
all of you - voi toti
sau
you both - voi amandoi
you two - voi doi
you...together - voi...impreuna

You are farmers - Voi sunteti fermieri, nu poate un singur om sa fie mai multi fermieri (deci aici you = voi)
You are a farmer - Tu esti fermier (deasemeni singura posibilitate)
You have a dog - poate sa fie si Tu ai un caine si Voi aveti un caine.
You two have a dog - Voi doi aveti un caine.


163. He - El

He is my brother - El e fratele meu


164. She - Ea

She is my sister - Ea este sora mea


165. It
It se foloseste pentru obiecte, deoarece engleza nu are gen. In plus toate obiectele sau chiar fiintele care nu conteaza ca gen sunt numite it.
Deasemeni propozitiile care in romaneste nu au subiect prin natura lor, in englezeste folosesc it (vezi ultimele doua exemple).

I see a fly. It is on the window. - Vad o musca. E pe geam.
That table needs fixing. It has a broken leg. - Masa aceea are nevoie sa fie reparata. Are un picior rupt
It looks like rain - Pare ca o sa ploua.
It must be hard - Trebuie sa fie greu
It's a long way to Tiperarry - E lung drumul pana la Tiperarry

It is late. - E tarziu
It is cold - E frig.


166. We - Noi

We are twins - Noi suntem gemeni.


167. They - Ei, Ele si plural pentru it

They are waiters - Ei sunt chelneri
They are waitresses - Ele sunt chelnerite
These are the dishes. They need to be washed - Acestea sunt vasele. Trebuiesc spalate


168. mine - al meu
yours - al tau
his - al lui
hers - al ei
ours - al nostru
yours - al vostru
their - al lor

The pencil is mine - Creionul e al meu
The pen is yours - Pixul e al tau
The notebook is his - Caietul e al lui
The eraser is hers - Guma e a ei
The pencil sharpener is ours - Ascutitoarea e a noastra
The papers are yours - Hartiile sunt ale voastre/ale tale
The ruler is theirs - Linia e a lor



169. it nu are pronume posesiv.
Are insa forma de adjectiv posesiv.

The table is red.- Masa este rosie
The red color is ? (nu exista pronume posesiv dar folosim genitivul lui table:

Culoarea rosie e a mesei - The red color is the table 's
sau
Its color is red - Culoarea ei e rosie


170. ma spal e verb reflexiv
Eu ma spal pe mine.
Ma si pe mine sunt pronume reflexive.
Nu orice verb reflexiv in romaneste e reflexiv si in engleza.
In engleza sunt mai putine verbe reflexive ca in romaneste. De aceea in loc de pronume reflexiv uneori se foloseste adjectivul posesiv:
Ma pieptan - I comb my hair (Pieptan parul meu.)
Ma spal pe dinti - I brush my teeth. (Spal dintii mei)

De multe ori un verb poate fi reflexiv intr-un context si nereflexiv in altul.

Eu spal o cana - nu e reflexiv
Eu ma spal pe mine - reflexiv


171. to wash oneself - a se spala pe sine
In engleza insa pronumele reflexiv nu se foloseste cand se subintelege ca actiunea are caracter reflexiv
Iata o lista de verbe care pot fi reflexive in engleza.

to behave onself - a se purta bine in public (zis mai mult despre copii sau despre animale de companie)
to convince oneself - a se autoconvinge
to cry oneself to sleep - a plange in pat pana adormi.
to deny oneself - a-si refuza
to encourage oneself - a se autoincuraja
to enjoy oneself - a se distra
to hurt oneself - a-si face rau singur
to kill oneself - a se sinucide
to market oneself - a-si face reclama


172. Reflexivul in engleza se formeaza din adjectivul posesiv la care se adauga terminatia
self - la sngular
selves - la plural

I enjoyed myself at the party - M-am simtit bine la petrecere.
You blame yourself too much - Te invinovatesti prea mult.
He hurt himself in the garage - S-a ranit in garaj.
She baked herself a cake - Si-a copt o prajitura.
The cat licked itself clean - Pisica s-a lins pana s-a curatat.
We tell ourselves lies everyday - Ne spunem minciuni in fiecare zi.
You made yourselves very clear in your speech. - Ati fost foarte clari in discurs.
They look at themselves in the mirror - Ei se uita in oglinda


173. Pronumele reflexive au si intelesul de singur sau sunt folosite si ca intarire.

by myself - singur, singura.

I like to live by myself - Imi place sa locuiesc singur
I wrote the paper by myself - Am scris lucrarea singur.
I wrote this paper myself - Chiar eu am scris lucrarea asta.


174. Pronumele reflexive se pot traduce si cu insumi, insuti, etc.

I went there myself - Eu insuni m-am dus acolo


175. with me -> cu mine In romaneste atunci cand nu pronumele personal face actiunea (adica nu e subiect)se zice de exemplu:

M-am dus cu tine.

Prepozitiile cu de mai jos au numai rol de exemplificare:

(with) me - (cu) mine
(with) you - (cu) tine
(with) him - (cu) el
(with) her - (cu) ea
(with) us - (cu) noi
(with) you - (cu) voi
(with) them - (cu) ei, ele


176. Dupa prepozitii daca urmeaza un pronume automat acesta e un pronume la cazul obiectiv.

Emily went with me - Emily s-a dus cu mine
Emily talked about you - Emily a vorbit despre tine
Emily worked without him - Emily a lucrat fara el
Emily took it from her - Emily l-a luat de la ea
Emily lives above us - Emily locuieste deasupra noastra
Emily wrote a poem for you - Emily a scris o poezie pentru voi
Emily thought about them - Emily s-a gandit la ei


177. Pe mine, pe tine se traduc me, you fara prepozitie
L-am vazut pe el.- I saw him
L-am intrebat pe el. - I asked him

In romaneste se adauga inca un pronume, acest l-, care in engleza nu exista.
In englezeste spunem Am vazut pe el. (fara L-).Am vazut pe tine (fara Te-). etc

I love you! - Te iubesc!
Subiectul I e obligatoriu, pe nu se traduce te cade si se traduce Eu iubesc pe tine.

Peter asked me - Peter m-a intrebat
Peter noticed you - Peter te-a observat
Peter called him - Peter l-a chemat
Peter saw her - Peter a vazut-o
Peter fed us - Peter ne-a hranit
Peter called you - Peter v-a chemat
Peter rang them - Peter i-a sunat.


178. Give me! - Da-mi!

Si in acest caz (cazul dativ) se foloseste aceasta forma a pronumelui personal
Dativul totdeauna raspunde la intrbarea CUI?
Si in acest caz limba romana foloseste un dublu pronume, iar in engleza exista doar al doilea.

He told me about it. - Mi-a spus mie(despre asta)
He gave you a present - Ti-a dat tie un cadou
The child showed him the drawing! - Copilul i-a aratat desenul
He wrote her a letter - I-a scris o scrisoare ei.
He read us a story - Ne-a citit o poveste
He built you a tree house - V-a construit o casa in copac
He made them an offer - Le-a facut o oferta


179. Vai de mine!
Exista unele interjectii care folosesc pronume sau adjective care se traduc cu vai de mine

Dear me!
Gracious me!
Goodness me!
Oh my god!
Oh my stars!
Oh my!


180. WHO - CARE, PE CARE
Cand nu e interogatie WHO poate fi tradus si cu CARE sau PE CARE (whom)
WHO este cine fara prepozitie. WHOM este cu prepozitie: pe cine, pe care
Cand se refera mai degraba la oricine, cine se traduce cu whoever.

Who will answer? - Cine va raspunde?
She is the girl who answered. - Ea este fata care a raspuns.
That is the lady who is my teacher - Aceea este doamna care este profesoara mea
That is the man who I saw - Acela e omul pe care l-am vazut


181. WHOEVER - ORICINE
Cand cine are intelesul de oricine se foloseste whoever.
Anybody sau anyone au deasemeni intelesul de oricine.
Cand oricine poate fi inlocuit de cine atunci se foloseste whoever.
Altfel se foloseste anybody, anyone

Whoever buys you earrings again - Cine ti-o mai lua cercei
Whoever comes to the party, may win a prize - Cine vine la petrecere poate castiga un premiu
Anybody can come to the party - Oricine are voie sa vina la petrecere


182. anyone who - whoever
Putem insa inlocui whoever cu anyone who sau anybody who.

This number is for anyone who calls - Acest numar e pentru cine suna
This number is for whoever calls


183. WHOM - CU CINE, LA CINE, etc
Cand cine e insotit de prepozitie se traduce whom in loc de who
Insa astazi aceasta regula e adeseori incalcata, si forma folosita e tot who.

For whom the bells toll - Pentru cine bat clopotele.
Look who is talking to whom - Uite cine vorbeste cu cine
With whom are you going? - Cu cine mergi?
dar veti auzi mai degraba:
With who are you going?
sau si mai des
Who are you going with?

184. to whom, to whoever - cui

to whom - la cine, catre cine - deobicei se traduce prin cui

To whom are you writing? - Cui ii scrii?
dar
To whom are you going" - La cine te duci?
Give the old coat to whoever wants it - Da haina veche oricui o vrea,

Primele doua intrebari se zic mai degraba:

Who are you writing to? - Cui ii scrii?
dar
Whom are you going to - La cine te duci?


185. To whom it may concern - Cui ii poate fi de interes

Propozitie consacrata folosita de firme pe scrisori trimise catre mai multi destinatari necunoscuti


186. who inseamna si caruia, careia, carora

Tell someone who cares - Spune cuiva caruia ii pasa (nu mie)


187. WHO, WHICH si THAT inseamna CARE
Contextele in care se foloseste fiecare insa difera putin.
Who se foloseste in cazul oamenilor
That si which in cazul fiintelor, obiectelor si conceptelor.

The boy who runs fast - Baiatul care alearga repede
The train that is fast - Trenul care e rapid
The fast train which we saw yesterday - Trenul rapid pe care l-am vazut ieri


188. THAT introduce informatii obligatorii, which neobligatorii

They are on the team that won first place - Ei sunt in echipa care a luat locul intai(identifica echipa).
The present, which I bought her, is very big. - Cadoul pe care i l-am luat e foarte mare. (Se presupune ca nu ai cumparat si alte cadouri)
That se foloseste la animale si chiar si la oameni.
The big shaggy dog that I love - Cainele mare si latos pe care il iubesc.
The man that conquered Mount Everest - Omul care a cucerit Everestul


189. Daca propozitia principala incepe cu this, that, these, those se poate folosi which in loc de that.
That car - Masina aceea, masina a fost identificata, deci acum putem folosi which.

That car which is in the parking lot is Mary's. - Masina aceea care este in parcare este a Mariei.


190. one another - unul pe altul
unul cu altul, unul pe celalalt, unul celuilalt, unii pe altii

They help one another a lot - Se ajuta mult unul pe altul
They talk to one another - Vorbesc unul cu altul
They often see one another - Deseori se viziteaza (se intalnesc, se vad) unul pe celalalt.
Let us help one another - Sa ne ajutam unii pe altii.


191. each other inseamna one another
Amandoua au acelasi inteles totusi cand este vorba de doua persoane each other poate fi preferat

They listened to each other speak - S-au ascultat unul pe altul vorbind
They always had respect for each other - Totdeauna s-au respectat unul pe celalalt
They always had respect for one another


5.NUMERALUL


192. 1 - 10

One - 1
Two - 2
Three - 3
Four - 4
Five - 5
Six - 6
Seven - 7
Eight - 8
Nine - 9
Ten - 10

A week has seven days - O saptamana are sapte zile
I will be there in ten minutes - Ajung in 10 minute



193. 11 - 20

Eleven - 11
Twelve - 12
Thirteen - 13
Fourteen - 14
Fifteen - 15
Sixteen - 16
Seventeen - 17
Eighteen - 18
Nineteen - 19
Twenty -20

A teenager is somebody between thirteen and nineteen (years of age) - Un adolescent e cineva intre 13 si 19 ani.
There are twelve months in a year - Sunt 12 luni intr-un an.


194. 20 - 100
Twenty - 20
Thirty - 30
Forty - 40
Fifty - 50
Sixty - 60
Seventy - 70
Eighty - 80
Ninety - 90

There are sixty minutes in an hour - Sunt 60 de minute intr-o ora


195. 21
Twenty-one - Douazeci si unu
In engleza moderna nu se zice si la nici un numar pana la 99 inclusiv.
In engleza arhaica puteti auzi one and twenty etc
Four and twenty blackbirds baked in a pie - 24 de mierle coapte in placinta

Twenty-one is the legal age for drinking in the US. - 21 de ani e varsta legala pentru baut alcool in SUA.
There are twenty-four hours in a day. - Sunt 24 de ore pe zi
There are seven days in a week - Sunt sapte zile intr-o saptamana
There are fifty-two weeks in a year - Sunt 52 de saptamani intr-un an.
There are a hundred years in a century - Sunt 100 de ani intr-un secol.


196. 101 - 110
one hundred and one - 101
sau
one hundred one - 101
la fel orice numar intre un multiplu de 100 si multiplul respectiv plus 10 poate primi and. Exemplu:
406 - four hundred and six
sau
four hundred six.
356 - three hundred fifty six

One hundred and one dalmatians - O suta unu dalmatieni
Stefan cel Mare died five hundred eight years ago, in 1504. - Stefan cel Mare a murit acum 508 ani in 1504.
This year has three hundred fifty seven days - Anul acesta are 357 zile.


197. a thousand - o mie
ten thousand - 10.000
a hundred thousand - o suta de mii
a million - 1.000.000
a billion - un miliard

A thousand and one nights - O mie si una de nopti
That village has a population of two thousand three hundred seventeen people - Acel sat are o populatie de 2317 locuitori


198. Alta citire pentru mii
se zice mai mult:
2530 - twenty five hundred thirty
si nu
2530 - two thousand five hundred thirty

Columbus sailed the ocean blue
In fourteen hundred ninety two.

Columb a navigat peste intinderea oceanului
In 1492


199. 2012
Mai ales la ani, se zice mai simplu
2012 - twenty twelve
1945 - nineteen forty-five
Bineinteles ca si in engleza anii se scriu tot cu cifre, aici de fapt va arat cum se citesc acesti ani.

In eighteen seventy-seven Romania won its independence - In 1877 Romania si-a castigat independenta
In nineteen fourty-four the war ended in Europe - In 1944 s-a terminat razboiul in Europa.


200. Pentru a zice de ordinul sutelor, miilor
Se zice:
In the hundreds, in the thousands.

People came in the thousands to the concert - Oamenii au venit cu miile la concert


201. 1,64 = 1.64 De remarcat ca in engleza acolo unde noi punem ',' pentru zecimale, ei pun punct si unde noi punem '.' la mii ei pun virgula

1, 64 in romaneste = 1.64 in englezeste
5.279 in romaneste = 5,279 in englezeste
5.237.754 -> 5,237,754


202. The 20's - Anii 20
The twenties - anii 20.

The 40s were hard on everybody - Anii 40 au fost grei pentru toata lumea.


203. in his thirties
Am douazeci si ceva de ani - I'm in my twenties

She is in her nineties but she still jogs - Ea are 90 si ceva de ani dar inca face jogging


204. 1-10
first - prima (1st)
second - a doua (2nd)
third - a treia (3rd)
fourth - a patra (4th)
fifth - a cicea (5th)
sixth - a sasea (6th)
seventh - a saptea (7th)
eigth - a opta (8th)
ninth - a noua (9th)
tenth - a zecea (10th)

He came in first! - A terminat primul!
He finished the race in fourth place - A terminat cursa pe locul al patrulea.


205. 11 - 20 si peste
Se adauga th
eleventh - al 11-lea
twelfth - al 12-lea
thirteeth - al 13-lea
fourteenth - al 14-lea
fifteenth - al 15-lea
sixteenth - al 16-lea
seventeenth - al 17-lea
eighteenth - al 18-lea
nineteeth - al 19-lea
Avem regula ca la numeralele terminate in y, acesta se transforma in i
sixty - sixtieth
Acestea se scriu prescurtat: 11th, 12th, 354th etc

Eminescu lived in the nineteenth century - Eminescu a trait in secolul 19.
What country is number forty-eighth globally in oil production? Romania. - Ce tara e pe locul 48 in lume la productia de petrol? Romania


206. Two thirds - Doua treimi
Fractiile in engleza se exprima cu numerale cardinale si ordinale
Numaratorul e numeral cardinal
Numitorul e ordinal
Half - jumatate
A quarter - Un sfert
In engleza americana 0,3 se citeste O point three.
Zero se citeste in engleza ca zero sau O (litera o)

I ate one third of the pie - Am mancat o treime din placinta
Two fifths of the project is done - 2/5 din proiect este terminat


207. A tenth - A zecea parte
A hundredth - A suta parte
Se foloseste un numeral ordinal dar cu articolul nehotarat a

A milimeter is a thousandth of a meter and a tenth of a centimter - Un milimetru e a mia parte dintr-un metru si a zecea parte dintr-un centimetru


208. What day is today - Ce zi e azi?
In engleza americana luna se scrie inaintea zilei.

Azi e 13 octombrie
Today is the 13th of October (engleza britanica)
Today is October 13th (engleza americana)
Today is October 13 (engleza americana - fara th)

The New York City terrorist attacks took place on September 11, 2001.
They are also called the 9/11 (luna zi) attacks
Atacurile teroriste din New York au avut loc pe 11 Septembrie.
Ele sunt deasemeni numite atacurile 9 11


209. What time is it? - Cat e ceasul?

It is noon - E 12 ziua
It is midnight - E 12 noaptea
10 sau It is 10 o'clock sau It is 10 - E ora zece
It is half past ten. - E zece jumatate
It is a quarter past ten - E zece si un sfert
It is a quarter to ten - E zece fara un sfert


210. How old are you? - Cati ani ai?

24
I am 24
sau
I am 24 years old


6.VERBUL


211. Infinitivele verbelor se formeaza cu particula to, exemple:

To eat - a manca
To sleep - a dormi
To think - a gandi
To read - a citi
To talk - a vorbi
To drink - a bea



212. Exceptii can, may, must, shall, will, ought to care nu primesc particula to
Ele se numesc verbe modale.si sunt o categorie aparte de verbe

Un exemplu cand se folosesc verbele modale este urmatorul:

May I come? - Am voie sa vin?
Must I come? - Trebuie sa vin?


213. De asemenea verbele se impart in regulate si neregulate.
Verbele neregulate isi schimba radacina la anumite timpuri, si ele trebuie invatate in trei variante.
Prima este verbul la infinitiv, apoi radacina pt past tense si apoi radacina pt toate timpurile numite perfecte.
Exemplu:

to be - was - been


214. Verbe auxiliare
To be - a fi
To have - a avea
To do - a face

Aceste verbe pe langa sensurile de mai sus construiesc timpuri compuse
(asa cum a avea in romana formeaza de exemplu am alergat care nu inseamna ca: eu posed un alergat, cum ai zice am mere, adica am isi pierde sensul cunoscut)


215. To be - a fi

I am - Eu sunt
You are - Tu esti
He is - El este
She is - Ea este
We are - Noi suntem
You are - Voi sunteti
They are - Ei sunt


216. To have - a avea

I have - Eu am
You have - Tu ai
He has - El are
She has - Ea are
We have - Noi avem
You have - Voi aveti
They have - Ei au


217. To do - a face

I do - Eu fac
You do - Tu faci
He does - El face
She does - Ea face
We do - Noi facem
You do - Voi faceti
They do - Ei fac


218. Verbele nu au in engleza timpuri corespunzatoare celor din limba romana.
In engleza trebuie precizat daca o actiune e in desfasurare la un anumit moment prezent trecut, viitor sau daca exista fara sa fie in desfasurare.

De exemplu daca cineva iti spune: Lucrez la un proiect.
Ce inseamna? Ca lucreaza in fiecare zi un timp la acel proiect?
Ca lucreaza acum dar a facut o pauza, poate l-ai intrerupt tu?


219. I work - Eu lucrez.

I work on a project - Lucrez la un proiect.
Poate fi un raspuns la intrebarea Cu ce te ocupi?
I work on a project, everyday - Lucrez la un proiect zi de zi
Poate fi o afirmatie.
Acest timp se numeste Present Tense.


220. I am working

Daca actiunea a inceput si e in desfasurare fara sa fie insa ceva intrat in rutina, adica va avea un final se zice I am working Acest timp se numeste Present Continuous Dupa cum vom vedea nu orice verb accepta acest timp

I am eating now - Mananc acum. I eat at this time everyday - Mananc la aceasta ora in fiecare zi.

221. Insa si acest mod de exprimare lasa loc pentru confuzie

I am working on a project inseamna fie ca lucrez la un proiect in clipa asta, fie ca am un proiect mare la care lucrez de mai mult timp, dar care nu e munca mea obisnuita.
De aceea daca acum lucrezi, e bine sa se precizeze I am worknig on a project (right) now - ...chiar acum. Desi chiar si aceasta exprimare lasa loc pentru neintelegeri.


222. To talk - a vorbi
Present tense este:

I talk - Eu vorbesc
You talk - Tu vorbesti
He talks - El votbste
She talks - Ea vorbeste
It talks - Impersonal vorbeste
We talk - Noi vorbim
You talk - Voi vorbiti
They talk - Ei vorbesc


223. Modul de formare al lui Present Tense
pt toate verbele cu exceptia celor auxiliare este urmatorul
Se ia forma verbului la infinitivul scurt (fara to) care se pune la toate persoanele.
La persoana a treia sigular se adauga s

To walk - a merge pe jos
I walk to school and he walks too - Eu merg pe jos la scoala si el merge tot pe jos


224. To eat - a manca
Present continuous e urmatorul

I am eating
You are eating
He is eating
She is eating
We are eating
You are eating
They are eating


225. Modul de formare al lui Present Continuous
pentru toate verbele care primesc acest timp.

Se foloseste prezentul verbul auxiliar to be si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ing.

Shh, people are reading in here! - Shh, citesc oameni aici!
He is talking on the phone - El vorbeste la telefon


226. I am - I'm
Verbul to be la prezent se foloseste foarte mult (inclusiv ca auxiliar) intr-o forma contractata

I am - I'm
You are - You're
He is - He's
We are - We're
You are - You're
They are - They're

I'm a lion tamer - Sunt imblanzitor de lei
I'm Romanian - Sunt roman(ca)
dar si
I'm playing the piano - Cant la pian
They're singing my favorite song - Ei canta cantecul meu favorit


227. Verbele care nu au forma continua se numesc verbe statice.
Ele sunt verbe care nu sunt verbe de actiune.
De exemplu: to be, to belong, to love, to hate, to like, to know, to understand.

De exemplu nu se poate zice ca inteleg ceva acum dar stiu ca peste un timp n-am sa mai inteleg acel lucru.


228. Sunt si verbe care in mod normal nu admit forma continua
dar in anumite cazuri admit
. to see - a vedea

I see an elephant si nu I am seeing an elephant.
dar se spune
I am seeing somebody - Ma vad cu cineva
I am seeing a doctor - Ma duc la un tratament mai lung la doctor


229. To have - a avea
ca verb posesiv nu admite forma continua

I am having a car nu e corect
dar
I am having lunch este.


230. To hear - a auzi
to imagine - a-si imagina
nu au forma continua.

I hear a bell. - Aud un clopot
dar
You're hearing things sau
You're imagining things.
Inseamna ca auzi sau iti imaginezi lucruri care nu sunt adevarate


231. to think - a gandi, a crede (mai rar)
To think cu sensul de a gandi are forma continua.
Dar in sensul de a crede nu are

I am thinking about you. - Ma gandesc la tine
I think you are wrong. - Cred ca nu ai dreptate.


232. Vorbitorii nativi de limba engleza cateodata fac jocuri de cuvinte in care regulile gramaticale pot fi incalcate.
Aceste abateri insa nu pot fi create decat de nativi, ceilalti oameni trebuie sa respecte regulile de gramatica, daca vor sa fie siguri ca nu gresesc sau ca ceilalti nu le vad inventiile lingvistice doar ca pe niste greseli.

Un exemplu Verbul to love nu accepta present continuous (dar reclama lui McDonalds: I'm loving it! ar dovedi contrariul)
Reclama vrea sa zica probabil ca I am loving it chiar acum,
in fiecare minut al vietii mele (de preferinta cu un hamburger in mana)


233. Present Tense se foloseste:
1. Atunci cand actiunea e in derulare pe termen nelimitat (chiar daca pe termen nelimitat ea nu se intampla niciodata vezi mai jos)

I sometimes, talk to my cousin on the phone - Cateodata vorbesc cu varul meu (verisoara mea) la telefon
I see my sister everyday - O vad oe sora mea zilnic
I only see my cousin on weekends - Il vad pe varul meu numai in weekend
I never see my uncle - Nu-l vad niciodata pe unchiul meu


234. Present Tense se foloseste:
2. Atunci cand ni se prezinta un adevar absolut

The sun heats the earth - Soarele incalzeste pamantul
We breathe oxygen - Noi respiram oxigen
At night, dogs bark at the moon - Noaptea cainii latra la luna


235. Present Tense se foloseste:
3. Ca viitor

The train arrives at nine - Trenul soseste la 9
I leave in an hour - Plec intr-o ora


236. Present Tense se foloseste:
4. Dupa: after (dupa), before (inainte), when (cand), as soon as (deindata ce), while (in timp ce) daca reprezinta o actiune viitoare
Aceata regula e valabila si cu Timpul Prezent din romaneste

When I grow up, I'll be rich and famous. - Cand ma fac mare voi fi bogat si celebru.
I will tell her as soon as I see her. - Am sa-i spun de indata ce o vad



237. Present Continuous se foloseste:
1.Cand reprezinta o actiune care se desfasoara in prezent si care are o perioada limitata de desfasurare.

I am reading Gone with the wind - Citesc Pe aripile vantului
They are watching TV. - Ei se uita la televizor


238. Present Continuous se foloseste:
2.Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu alta actiune:

I always get to the bus station when the bus is leaving. - Totdeauna ajung in statie cand pleaca autobuzul


239. Past Tense al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I talked - Eu am vorbit
You talked - Tu ai vorbit
He talked - El a vorbit
She talked - Ea a vorbit
We talked - Noi am vorbit
You talked - Voi ati vorbit
They talked - Ei, Ele au vorbit


240. Modul de formare al lui Past Tense
Pentru toate verbele regulate este prin adaugarea terminatiei ed infinitivului scurt (fara to) al verbului.

to watch - a privi
I watched the storm approach - Am privit furtuna apropiindu-se
to dance - a dansa
They danced all night - Ei au dansat toata noaptea


241. Past Tense pentru verbele neregulate se formeaza in modul urmator:
Se ia din lista a doua forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele:
De exemplu pentru to eat - a manca forma a doua e ate.

I ate - Eu am mancat
You ate - Tu ai mancat
He ate - El a mancat
She ate - Ea a mancat
We ate - Noi am mancat
You ate - Voi ati mancat
They ate - Ei, Ele au mancat


242. Verbul to be - a fi are forma la Past Tense was
Totusi acest verb este singurul care nu respecta regula.
Conjugarea o vedeti mai jos.

I was - Eu am fost
You were - Tu ai fost
He was - El a fost
She was - Ea a fost
We were - Noi am fost
You were - Voi ati fost
They were - Ei, Ele au fost


243. Verbul to have - a avea are forma la Past Tense had:

I had - Eu am avut
You had - Tu ai avut
He had - El a avut
She had - Ea a avut
We had - Noi am avut
You had - Voi ati avut
They had - Ei, Ele au avut


244. Verbul to do - a face are forma la Past Tense did:

I did - Eu am facut
You did - Tu ai facut
He did - El a facut
She did - Ea a facut
We did - Noi am facut
You did - Voi ati facut
They did - Ei, Ele au facut


245. Past Tense reprezinta o actiune care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat.

I rang the doorbell until he answered. Am sunat - Am sunat, pana cand el mi-a deschis.
Am sunat dar nu mai sun, el a raspuns si mi-a deschis.
I walked a lot yesterday - Ieri am mers mult pe jos.

246. Past Tense
E timpul folosit in povestiri
Apelati la el daca actiunea e la trecut si aveti indoieli ce timp sa folositi.

Jack and Jill went up the hill
To fetch a pail of water
Jack fell down and broke his crown
And Jill came tumbling after

Jack si cu Jill au urcat pe deal
Sa aduca o galeata de apa
Jack a cazut si si-a spart capul
Iar Jill a venit rostogolindu-se in urma lui


247. Present Perfect al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I have talked - Eu am vorbit
You have talked - Tu ai vorbit
He has talked - El a vorbit
She has talked - Ea a vorbit
We have talked - Noi am vorbit
You have talked - Voi ati vorbit
They have talked - Ei, Ele au vorbit


248. Modul de formare al lui Present Perfect pentru toate verbele regulate.
Se foloseste prezentul verbului auxiliar to have
si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ed.

I have finished the paper for my History class - Am terminat lucrarea. You have won the race


249. Verbul to have a avea e de multe ori deasemeni contractat ca si verbul to be.
Spre deosebire de acest verb insa care poate fi contractat si ca verb de sine statator, to have se contracta aproape numai in cazurile cand e verb auxiliar
I have a dog - Am un caine, nu se contracta.

I have - I've
You have - You've
He has - He's
We have - We've
You have - You've
They have - They've


250. Present Perfect pentru verbele neregulate se formeaza in modul urmator:
Se ia din lista a treia forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele:
De exemplu pentru to eat - a manca forma a treia e eaten.

I've eaten - Eu am mancat
You've eaten - Tu ai mancat
He's eaten - El a mancat
She's eaten - Ea a mancat
We've eaten - Noi am mancat
You've eaten - Voi ati mancat
They've eaten - Ei, Ele au mancat


251. Present Perfect se foloseste:
1. Cand exprimam o actiune inceputa anterior momentului prezent si care are consecinte in prezent.
Aceste consecinte nu sunt neaparat exprimate
De exemplu: Am mancat (deci nu mi-e foame).

No, thank you, I have eaten - Nu multumesc am mancat


252. Present Perfect se foloseste:
2.Daca actiunea din trecut e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul ei se vede in prezent.

I have painted the house blue - Am vopsit casa in albastru
I have graduated from university last year - Am absolvit facultatea anul trecut.


253. Present Perfect se foloseste:
3.Daca verbul e insotit de un adverb often (mereu), sometimes (cateodata), never (niciodata) etc.
In aceste cazuri adverbul se pune de regula intre auxiliar si verbul respectiv.

I have never been to Oslo - Nu am fost niciodata la Oslo -
She has always helped me.- Ea totdeauna ea m-a ajutat


254. Si pentru Present Perfect exista multe exceptii: 1. Americanii folosesc mult Past Tense in locul lui Present Perfec
2. In mod frecvent adverbul nu va fi intre auxiliar si verb.

1. Past Tense in loc de Present Perfect:
I never saw a purple cow
I never hope to see one
But I can tell you anyhow
I'd rather see than be one

Nu am vazut niciodata o vaca mov
Sper nici sa nu vad vreodata
Dar pot sa va spun cu siguranta
Ca prefer sa vad decat sa fiu

2. Adverb in afara locului sau:
Never have I seen you looking so lovely - Niciodata nu te-am vazut aratand mai incantatoare.- apare de exemplu in cantecul Lady in Red.
Observati ca in acest caz, cand adverbul e in afara, se inverseaza I cu have.


255. Past Continuous al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I was talking - Eu vorbeam
You were talking - Tu vorbeai
He was talking - El vorbea
She was talking - Ea vorbea
We were talking - Noi vorbeam
You were talking - Voi vorbeati
They were talking - Ei, Ele vorbeau


256. Modul de formare al lui Past Continuous Pentru toate verbele si regulate si neregulate timpul se formeaza prin conjugarea la past tense a verbului auxiliar to be si adaugarea terminatiei ing infinitivului scurt (fara to) al verbului.

I was writing him a letter when he knocked on my door - Ii scriam o scrisoare cand mi-a batut la usa
He was sleeping when the earthquake started - El dormea cand a inceput cutremurul


257. Past Continuous se refera la:
Un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu un alt eveniment.
De multe ori acest timp e echivalent cu imperfectul din limba romana
(mancam) - Atunci cand verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de altceva.

I was eating when the lights went off -Mancam cand s-a intrerupt lumina.


258. Past Perfect al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I had talked - Eu vorbisem
You had talked - Tu vorbisesi
He had talked - El vorbise
She had talked - Ea vorbiseram
We had talked - Noi vorbiserati
You had talked - Voi vorbeati
They had talked - Ei, Ele vorbisera


259. Modul de formare al lui Past Perfect
Se foloseste Past Tense al verbului auxiliar to have si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ed. (forma a treia pentru verbe neregulate)

I had heard of him even as a child - Auzisem de el chiar si cand eram copil


260. Past Perfect pentru verbele neregulate se formeaza in modul urmator
Se ia din lista a treia forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele.

I had eaten - Eu mancasem
You had eaten - Tu mancasesi
He had eaten - El mancase
She had eaten - Ea mancase
We had eaten - Noi mancaseram
You had eaten - Voi mancaserati
They had eaten - Ei, Ele nancasera


261. La Past Perfect verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa, anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute.

I had learned to play the piano before I started violin lessons. - Invatasem sa cant la pian inainte sa incep lectiile de vioara.


262. De multe ori Past Perfect e echivalent cu mai mult ca perfectul din limba romana (invatasem).
Anume atunci cand verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se raporteaza.

I had eaten the desert that is why I did not want the soup - Eu mancasem desertul de aceea nu am mai vrut supa.


263. Future Tense (Viitorul) verbului to talk - a vorbi este:

I will talk - Eu voi vorbi
You will talk - Tu vei vorbi
He will talk - El va vorbi
She will talk - Ea va vorbi
We will talk - Noi vom vorbi
You will talk - Voi veti vorbi
They will talk - Ei, Ele vor vorbi


264. Modul de formare al lui Future Tense
Se foloseste forma will provenita de la verbul auxiliar to br si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt (fara to) a verbului de conjugat.

I will tell the truth, he said. - Voi spune adevarul, a spus el
Today, I will go by bus. - Astazi, ma duc cu autobuzul
The party will be great! - Petrecerea va fi grozava!


265. Future Tense reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp.

I will be an engineer. - Voi fi inginer I will have a big house - Voi avea o casa mare
I will do what I promised - Voi face ce am promis


266. Pe langa auxiliarul de departe cel mai folosit de la to be, anume will
Exista si shall care atunci cand e folosit deobicei implica o promisiune a infaptuirii actiunii respective, in engleza americana se foloseste foarte rar.

I shall keep my promise, I shall learn to ride a bike. - Imi voi tine promisiunea, voi invata sa merg pe bicicleta


267. O alta forma a timpului viitor in engleza americana se formeaza cu am going to.

I am going to eat - I will eat
You are going to eat
He is going to eat
She is going to eat
We are going to eat
Yo are going to eat
They are going to eat


268. Future Continuousal verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I will be talking
You will be talking
He will be talking
She will be talking
We will be talking
You will be talking
They will be talking


269. Modul de formare al lui Future Continuous
pentru toate verbele regulate si neregulate este de folosire a lui will be urmat de infinitivul scurt al verbului la care se adauga terminatia ing

She'll be coming round the mountain when she comes - Ea va veni in jurul muntelui atunci cand va veni.


270. Future Continuous
se foloseste atunci cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor

Tonight, at 10, I will be grading papers. - Diseara, la 10, eu voi corecta lucrari


271. Future Perfect al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I will have talked - Eu voi fi vorbit
You will have talked - Tu vei fi vorbit
He will have talked - El va fi vorbit
She will have talked - Ea va fi vorbit
We will have talked - Noi vom fi vorbit
You will have talked - Voi veti fi vorbit
They will have talked - Ei, Ele vor fi vorbit


272. Modul de formare al lui Future Perfect
Se foloseste will have si se adauga forma de infinitiv scurt a verbului de conjugat la care se adauga terminatia ed.

They will have gathered the harvest by the time autumn comes - Ei vor fi strans recolta pana la venirea toamnei.


273. Future Perfect pentru verbele neregulate
Se formeaza in modul urmator Se ia din lista a treia forma a verbului si se foloseste la toate peroanele in locul infinitivului scurt.
eat - ate - eaten unde eat = a manca

I wil have eaten - Eu voi fi mancat
You wil have eaten - Tu vei fi mancat
He wil have eaten - El va fi mancat
She wil have eaten - Ea va fi mancat
We wil have eaten - Noi vom fi mancat
You wil have eaten - Voi veti fi mancat
They wil have eaten - Ei, Ele vor fi mancat


274. Future Perfect exprima o actiune din viitor care se va petrece inaintea altei actiuni din viitor.
Este echivalentul lui voi fi facut, din romaneste.

By the time the mustard comes, the kids will have eaten the stake. - Pana vine mustarul, copiii vor fi mancat friptura


275. Present Perfect Continuous al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I have been talking
You have been talking
He has been talking
She has been talking
We have been talking
You have been talking
They have been talking


276. Modul de formare al lui Present Perfect Continuous pentru toate verbele regulate:si neregulate:
Se foloseste verbul auxiliar to have care se conjuga la present la fiecare persoana.
Se adauga la toate persoanele been care este forma a treia a verbului auxiliar to be
Se adauga infinitivul scurt al verbului folosit la care se adauga terminatia ing

I have been waiting by the phone since 10 a.m - Am asteptat langa telefon de la 10 dimineata.


277. Prezentul Perfect Continuu se foloseste atunci cand verbul reprezinta o actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor

I've been working on the railroad all live long day - Am muncit la calea ferata cat e ziua de lunga


278. Trecutul Perfect Continuu al verbului to talk - a vorbi este:

I had been talking
You had been talking
He had been talking
She had been talking
We had been talking
You had been talking
They had been talking


279. Modul de formare al lui Past Perfect Continuous pentru toate verbele regulate:si neregulate:
Se foloseste verbul auxiliar to have care se conjuga la Past Tense la fiecare persoana.
Se adauga la toate persoanele been care este forma a treia a verbului auxiliar to be
Se adauga infinitivul scurt al verbului folosit la care se adauga terminatia ing

I had been washing my car when it started raining - Imi spalam masina cand a inceput ploaia


280. Past Perfect Continuous reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprita de o alta actiune a carui urmari continua si azi.

He had been eating from the chocolate, before you told him it contained peanuts - Manca din ciocolata inainte sa-i spui ca ea contine alune americane.


281. Future Perfect Continuous al verbului to talk - a vorbi e:

I will have been talking - Eu voi fi vorbit
You will have been talking - Tu vei fi vorbit
He will have been talking - El va fi vorbit
She will have been talking - Ea va fi vorbit
We will have been talking - Noi vom fi vorbit
You will have been talking - Voi veti fi vorbit
They will have been talking - Ei, Ele vor fi vorbit


282. Modul de formare al lui Future Perfect Continuous pentru toate verbele regulate:si neregulate:
Se foloseste forma will care provine de la verbul auxiliar to be
Se foloseste infinitivul scurt have a verbului auxiliar to have
Se adauga la toate persoanele been care este forma a treia a verbului auxiliar to be
Se adauga infinitivul scurt al verbului folosit la care se adauga terminatia ing

It will have been raining for three weeks straight this Monday - Va fi plouat fara intrerupere de trei saptamani lunea asta.


283. Future Perfect Continuous reprezinta o actiune desfasurata in viitor care se intinde pe o perioada lunga de timp in trecut si implica o actiune in derulare.

At 4 o'clock that marathon runner will have been running for over five hours, but he refuses to give up. - La ora 4, acel alergator de maraton va fi alergat de 5 ore, dar el refuza sa se dea batut


284. Exista un numar de verbe care nu exprima o actiune. Aceste verbe sa numesc Linking Verbs (verbe de legatura). Ele trebuie stiute pentru ca sunt insotite totdeauna de un substantiv sau adjectiv. Ele formeaza predicatul nominal. Substantivul sau adjectivul care insoteste verbul se numeste nume predicativ.

I am an actress - Eu sunt actrita. (sunt actrita e predicat nominal)
  • sunt - verb
  • actrita - substantiv (nume predicativ)
My neighbor seems happy - Vecinul meu pare fericit (pare fericit e predicat nominal)
  • pare - verb
  • fericit - adjectiv (nume predicativ)


285. In engleza urmatoarele verbe sunt totdeauna verbe de legatura si trebuie urmate de un nume predicativ:

  • to be - a fi
  • to become - a deveni
  • to seem - a parea

She is funny - Ea este nostima
Budgies become frightened easily - Papagalii perus devin usor speriati
It seemed like a good idea - Parea o idee buna


286. In engleza urmatoarele verbe NU sunt totdeauna verbe de legatura functia lor in propozitie depinde de context:

  • to appear - a aparea, a parea
  • to feel - a simti
  • to grow - a creste
  • to look - a privi, a cauta, a parea
  • to prove - a dovedi
  • to remain - a ramane
  • to smell - a mirosi
  • to sound - a suna
  • to taste - a gusta
  • to turn - a (se) intoarce, a deveni


287. To appear, to look si to turn au valoare de predicat nominal atunci cand au intelesul unuia din verbele care am vazut ca sunt totdeauna predicate nominale: to be, to become, to seem

Predicate nominale:
He appears tired He seems tired Pare obosit
He looks familiar He seems familiar Pare cunoscut
He turned 16. - He became 16 (nu se zice) - A implinit, (a devenit de)16 ani.

NU sunt predicate nominale
He appeared on TV - A aparut la televizor
He is looking for his watch - Isi cauta ceasul
He turned the car to face the gate - A intors masina ca sa fie cu fata spre poarta


288. Daca celelalte verbe prezentate: to feel - a simti, to grow - a creste, to prove - a dovedi, to remain - a ramane, to smell - a mirosi, to sound - a suna, to taste - a gusta pot fi considerate sinonime cu verbul to be, atunci avem de-a face cu un predicat nominal care trebuie urmat de un adjectiv sau de un substantiv.

I feel a stong pain - Simt un mare junghi: verb de actiune
I feel tired - Ma simt obosita - Sunt obosita: verb de legatura (predicat nominal)
I grow a tree - Cresc un copac: verb de actiune
He will grow tall - El va creste inalt - El va fi inalt: verb de legatura (predicat nominal)


289. Exista cateva adjective in engleza care nu pot sta decat pe langa un verb de legatura.
Ele nu pot fi folosite pe langa substantive.

  1. He is ill. - E bolnav.
  2. An ill man - Nu e corect.

Iata lista acestor adjective:

  • afraid: I am afraid - Mi-e frica
  • asleep: He is asleep - El doarme
  • alone: I am alone - Sunt singur
  • alive: I am alive - Sunt viu
  • aware: I am aware of that - Sunt constient de acest lucru
  • awake: It's ok, I am awake - E ok, nu dorm
  • content: I am content - Sunt multumit
  • due: The paper is due tommorow - Referatul are scadenta maine
  • ready: I am ready - Sunt gata
  • unable: I am unable to sing - Nu pot sa cant
  • glad: I am glad you came - Ma bucur ca ai venit
  • sorry: I am sorry - Imi pare rau
  • well: He is well - El e bine
  • ill: He is ill - El e bolnav
  • sure: I am sure - Sunt sigur


  • 290. Toate timpurile invatate se refera la Diateza Activa, subiectul propozitiei efectueaza actiunea.

    I am eating a boa constrictor - Eu mananc un sarpe boa


    291. In Diateza Pasiva actiunea se face asupra subiectului, nu de catre subiect

    I am being eaten by a boa constrictor. - Eu sunt mancat de un sarpe boa
    The clothes have been rinsed in the washing machine - Hainele au fost clatite in masina de spalat


    292. Diateza Pasiva - Present Tense

    The crates are lifted by me - Lazile sunt ridicate de mine
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I lift crates - Eu ridic lazi.)

    I am lifted - Eu sunt ridicat
    You are lifted - Tu esti ridicat
    He is lifted - El este ridicat
    She is lifted - Ea este ridicata
    We are lifted - Noi suntem ridicati
    You are lifted - Voi sunteti ridicati
    They are lifted - Ei, Ele sunt ridicati/ridicate


    293. Diateza Pasiva - Present Continuous

    The creates are being lifted by me
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I am lifting crates.)

    I am being lifted
    You are being lifted
    He is being lifted
    She is being lifted
    We are being lifted
    You are being lifted
    They are being lifted


    294. Diateza Pasiva - Past Tense

    The crates were lifted by me - Lazile au fost ridicate de mine
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I lifted crates - Eu am ridicat lazi.)

    I was lifted - Eu am fost ridicat
    You were lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat
    He was lifted - El a fost ridicat
    She was lifted - Ea a fost ridicata
    We were lifted - Noi am fost ridicati
    You were lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati
    They were lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati


    295. Diateza Pasiva - Present Perfect

    The creates have been lifted by me
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I have lifted crates.)

    I have been lifted - Eu am fost ridicat
    You have been lifted - Tu ai fost ridicat
    He has been lifted - El a fost ridicat
    She has been lifted - Ea a fost ridicata
    We have been lifted - Noi am fost ridicati
    You have been lifted - Voi ati fost ridicati
    They have been lifted - Ei, Ele au fost ridicati


    296. Diateza Pasiva - Past Continuous

    The crates were being lifted by me - Lazile erau ridicate de mine
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I was lifting crates - Eu ridicam lazi.)

    I was being lifted - Eu eram ridicat
    You were being lifted - Tu erai ridicat
    He was being lifted - El era ridicat
    She was being lifted - Ea era ridicata
    We were being lifted - Noi eram ridicati
    You were being lifted - Voi erati ridicati
    They were being lifted - Ei, Ele erau ridicati


    297. Diateza Pasiva - Past Perfect

    The crates had been lifted by me - Lazile fusesera ridicate de mine
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I had lifted crates - Eu ridicasem lazi.)

    I had been lifted - Eu fusesem ridicat
    You had been lifted - Tu fusesesi ridicat
    He had been lifted - El fusesese ridicat
    She had been lifted - Ea fusesese ridicata
    We had been lifted - Noi fuseseram ridicati
    You had been lifted - Voi fuseserati ridicati
    They had been lifted - Ei, Ele fusesera ridicati


    298. Diateza Pasiva - Future Tense

    The creates will be lifted by me - Lazile vor fi ridicate de mine.
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will lift crates - Eu voi ridica lazi.)

    I will be lifted - Eu voi fi ridicat
    You will be lifted - Tu vei fi ridicat
    He will be lifted - El va fi ridicat
    She will be lifted - Ea va fi ridicata
    We will be lifted - Noi vom fi ridicati
    You will be lifted - Voi veti fi ridicati
    They will be lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi ridicati


    299. Diateza Pasiva - Future Continuous

    The creates will be being lifted by me.
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will be lifting crates.)

    Acest timp e prea complicat. Nu se foloseste


    300. Diateza Pasiva - Future Perfect

    The creates will have been lifted by me - Lazile vor fi fost ridicate de mine.
    (La Diateza Activa ar fi fost: I will have lifted crates - Eu voi fi ridicat lazi.)

    I will have been lifted - Eu voi fi fost ridicat
    You will have been lifted - Tu vei fi fost ridicat
    He will have been lifted - El va fi fost ridicat
    She will have been lifted - Ea va fi fost ridicata
    We will have been lifted - Noi vom fi fost ridicati
    You will have been lifted - Voi veti fi fost ridicati
    They will have been lifted - Ei, Ele vor fi fost ridicati


    301. Diateza Pasiva - Perfect Continuous Tenses

    La Diateza Activa ar fi fost:
    I have been lifting crates
    sau
    I had been lifting crates
    sau
    I will have been lifting crates

    Aceste timpuri devin foarte complicate la diateza pasiva, asa ca nu se folosesc.


    302. Modul conditional exista si in engleza si in romana:

    I would fly if I had wings. - As zbura daca as avea aripi.
    As zbura (I would fly) e conditionalul prezent
    As fi zburat - I would have flown e conditionalul trecut


    303. Conditionalul Prezent ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele:

    I would fly - Eu as zbura
    You would fly - Tu ai zbura
    He would fly - El ar zbura
    She would fly - Ea ar zbura
    We would fly - Noi am zbura
    You would fly - Voi ati zbura
    They would fly - Ei, Ele ar zbura


    304. I shall do this are la conditional echivalentul I should do this
    iar
    I will do this are la conditional echivalentul I would do this

    would si should nu inseamna acelasi lucru:
    shall implica o promisiune - I should inseamna ar trebui
    I would inseamna as vrea

    Tom: I shall win the race! - Voi castiga cursa!
    Bill: You should!- Ar trebui (ar fi cazul)

    Tom: I will call you!- Am sa va sun!
    Bill I know you would (like to call us), but they might not have phones - Stiu ca ai vrea sa ne suni, dar s-ar putea sa nu aiba telefoane.


    305. La diateza pasiva ca si la diateza activa conditionalul nu se schimba in functie de persoana (you, he, she etc)

    I would be asked by my teacher - As fi intrebat de profesoara.


    306. Conditionalul prezent continuu
    I, you...would be flying.

    They are flying a kite - Ei inalta un zmeu prezent continuu.
    They would be flying a kite if there was wind - Ei ar inalta un zmeu daca ar fi vant conditionalul la prezent continuu.


    307. Conditionalul prezent continuu inlocuieste conditionalul prezent in aceleasi cazuri in care prezentul continuu inlocuieste prezentul.

    If he were here, he would be answering your questions, as we speak - Daca ar fi aici, v-ar raspunde la intrebari chiar acum (in timpul acesta in care va vorbesc). iar la prezent: Because he is here he is answeing questions, right now - Pentru ca e aici, el raspunde chiar acum la intrebari


    308. Si Conditionalul Prezent Continuu ca si conditionalul prezent ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele.

    I would be flying
    You would be flying
    He would be flying
    She would be flying
    We would be flying
    You would be flying
    They would be flying


    309. Conditionalul Prezent Continuu nu are forma pasiva.



    310. Conditionalul Trecut e de forma:

    I would have asked - Eu as fi intrebat
    sau
    I should have asked - Ar fi trebuit sa intreb


    311. Conjugarea Conditionalului trecut e neschimbata la toate persoanele
    In cazul verbelor neregulate se foloseste forma a treia.

    Conjugare: to ask (regulat), to eat (neregulat)

    I would have asked/eaten
    You would have asked/eaten
    He would have asked/eaten
    She would have asked/eaten
    We would have asked/eaten
    You would have asked/eaten
    They would have asked/eaten


    312. Diateza pasiva - Conditionalul Trecut
    Ca si pana acum nici aceasta forma nu se schimba in functie de persoana (You, he, she etc)

    I would have been asked by my teacher - As fi fost intrebat de profesoara mea.


    313. Conditionalul trecut continuu
    I, you...would have been flying.

    They were flying a kite - Ei inaltau un zmeu - trecut continuu.
    They would have been flying a kite if there had been wind - Ei ar fi inaltat un zmeu daca ar fi avut vant - conditionalul la trecut continuu.


    314. Conditionalul trecut continuu inlocuieste conditionalul trecut in aceleasi cazuri in care trecutul continuu inlocuieste trecutul.

    He would have been doing jail time if the law hadn't changed - Ar fi facut puscarie daca nu s-ar fi schimbat legea.


    315. Conditionalul trecut continuu ramane neschimbat la toate persoanele

    I would have been flying
    You would have been flying
    He would have been flying
    She would have been flying
    We would have been flying
    You would have been flying
    They would have been flying


    316. Conditionalul Trecut Continuu nu are forma pasiva.



    317. Propozitiile care contin conditionale contin deasemeni de multe ori prin natura lor conjunctia daca (if).
    Aceste propozitii au forma:
    Daca A atunci B - If A then B
    Daca A, B - If A, B
    B daca A - B if A.
    Aceste propozitii care contin o conditie se numesc conditionale.
    In engleza, ele au anumite reguli pentru timpurile verbelor din cadrul lor.
    Ele se numesc If Clauses

    If I go to school then I will learn a lot - Daca ma duc la scoala atunci voi invata multe
    sau
    If I go to school, I will learn a lot
    sau
    I will learn a lot if I go to school - Voi invata multe daca ma duc la scoala).


    318. If Clauses - Regula nr1

    Daca B e la viitor dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune prezentul

    If you let me in, I will give you a package - Daca ma lasi sa intru, iti dau un pachet
    sau
    I will give you a package if you let me in - Iti dau un pachet, daca ma lasi sa intru


    319. If Clauses - Regula nr2

    Daca B contine connditionalul prezent dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune past tense

    If I met her I would tell her - Daca as intalni-o, i-as spune
    I would tell her, if I met her - I-as spune, daca as intalni-o


    320. Exceptie - Regula nr2

    Verbul to be la toate persoanele devine wereIf I were happy I would clap my hands - Daca as fi fericit as bate din palme


    321. If Clauses - Regula nr3

    Daca B contine connditionalul trecut, dupa if, adica in propozitia A se pune past perfect

    If I had gone by ship I would have been shipwrecked too - Daca ma duceam cu vaporul as fi fost si eu naufragiat.


    322. Pentru aceste reguli valabile pentru IF clauses
    trebuie sa verificam ca fraza contine un if clause adica contine daca...atunci - if...then.
    Regulile se aplica numai atunci cand daca introduce o propozitie conditionala.
    Asa cum am vazut then poate sa lipseasca din propozitie dar existenta lui then trebuie sa se subinteleaga, chiar daca nu exista in fraza.

    I don't know if he will come - Nu stiu daca el va veni
    Aceasta propozitie nu este echivalenta cu: Daca el va veni atunci nu stiu.
    Deci nu este un if clause, nu are then si acesta nu se subintelege


    323. Modul subjonctiv (sau conjunctiv) exista si in engleza si in romana:
    In engleza moderna modul subjonctiv nu este folosit mult.

    Exemple de subjonctiv in romana:

    Sa fiu eu acolo, acest lucru nu s-ar intampla - If I were there this would not happen
    Sa fi fost eu acolo, acest lucru nu s-ar fi intamplat. - Had I been there this would not have happened
    Sa fiu este subjonctivul prezent al lui a fi.
    Sa fi fost este subjonctivul trecut al lui a fi.


    324. In engleza:
    Subjonctivul prezent cere that in propozitia secundara.
    Subjonctivul prezent in engleza pune la toate persoanele verbul la infinitiv.

    It is required that he pass the exam - Se cere ca el sa ia examenul
    si
    It was required that he pass the exam - Se cerea ca el sa ia examenul
    desi prezentul este: he passes the exam


    325. Zicem insa:

    Everyone knows that he passes exams - Toata lumea stie ca el ia examenele

    Deci he passes si nu he pass deoarece dupa cum vom vedea aceasta propozitie in engleza (sau romana) nu cere subjonctivul.


    326. Subjonctivul in englezeste exprima dorinte sau cerinte prezente sau trecute.

    I want that you come at 6 o'clock - Vreau ca tu sa vii la 6.
    I would like that you come at 6 o'clock. - Mi-ar placea ca tu sa vii la ora sase.
    Mult mai normal era insa
    I would like you to come at six o'clock (Mi-ar placea tu a veni la 6.)


    327. Subjonctivul trecut nu se deosebeste ca forma de past tense in majoritatea cazurilor, insa el exprima prezentul.
    El foloseste fie if - daca fie to wish.
    Folosirea acestui subjonctiv urmeaza regula nr2 din if clause

    If I owned a car, I would leave tommorow.- Sa am o masina as pleca maine. (Daca dorim sa pastram subjonctivul in romana)
    pe romaneste insa se zice mai mult
    Daca as avea o masina as pleca maine.


    328. Subjonctivul trecut urmeaza si exceptia regulii nr2 din if clause

    If I were a singer I would sing all day - Daca as fi cantaret as canta toata ziua.
    in ziua de azi insa veti auzi de multe ori:
    If I was a singer - Daca as fi cantaret


    329. Un alt caz pentru subjonctivul trecut este atunci cand se foloseste verbul to wish - a dori in principala

    I wish you were here - As vrea sa fii aici
    I wish he were here - As vrea sa fie aici
    dar se spune si
    I wish he was here - As vrea sa fie aici
    I wish I was a millionaire - As vrea sa fiu milionar.


    330. Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect exprima cu adevarat un timp trecut (spre deosebire de subjonctivul trecut care am vazut ca exprima un eveniment prezent).
    Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect foloseste mai mult ca perfectul (Past Perfect).

    Sa ma fi dus ieri, cumparam bilete la spectacol. - If I had gone yesteday, I would've bought tickets to the show


    331. Subjonctivul mai mult ca perfect se poate exprima si omitand if si inversand locul pronumelui (subiectului) cu verbul auxiliar had

    Sa ma fi dus ieri, cumparam bilete la spectacol. - Had I gone yesteday, I would've bought tickets to the show
    Had Farmer Jones known, he would've harvested sooner. - Sa fi stiut Fermierul Jones, ar fi recoltat mai devreme.


    332. Subjonctivul viitor se formeza astfel:

    If I were to pass the exam I would be ecstatic - Sa trec examenul as fi in culmea fericirii.


    333. In englezeste am vazut ca subjonctivul se foloseste atunci cand verbul din principala exprima o dorinta sau o cerere.
    Insa constructia cu conjunctia that intre propozitii apare in multe alte situatii
    In aceste situatii regulile pentru subjonctiv nu sunt valabile

    Subjonctiv
    I wish (that) he pass the class - Imi doresc ca el sa treaca clasa
    I wish (that) he were more determined - Mi-as dori sa fie mai hotarat
    Nu contine subjonctiv
    I see (that) he studies nowadays - Vad ca el studiaza zilele astea
    I think (that) in the past he was lazy - Cred ca in trecut era lenes


    334. Cand vorbim de acuzativ cu infinitiv verbul din secundara se pune la infinitiv iar pronumele (sau substantivul) la acuzativ.
    Acuzativul cu infinitiv de multe ori (dar nu totdeauna) se traduce in romaneste cu ajutorul subjonctivului.

    I want you to go there in loc de I want that you go there.

    I want you to go there = Vreau ca tu sa te duci acolo


    335. Sa comparam aceste doua forme trecand pronumele al doilea prin toate persoanele.
    Vedem aceata constructie de verb (wants) + acuzativ (me/you etc) + infinitiv (to go)

    Emily wants that I go there - Emily wants me to go there
    Emily wants that you go there - Emily wants you to go there
    Emily wants that he go there - Emily wants him to go there
    Emily wants that she go there - Emily wants her to go there
    Emily wants that Jake go there - Emily wants Jake to go there
    Emily wants that we go there - Emily wants us to go there
    Emily wants that you go there - Emily wants you to go there
    Emily wants that they go there - Emily wants them to go there


    336. Nu orice verb in propozitia principala permite folosirea acuzativului cu infinitivul
    Urmatoarele verbe sunt doar cateva dintre cele ce NU permit aceasta.

    to fall, to run, to talk


    337. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul:
    1. Verbe care exprima dorinta: (to wish, to want, to like)

    I wish him to speak - Doresc ca el sa vorbeasca
    I wish to speak. - Doresc (ca eu) sa vorbesc
    They would like me to talk about my hometown - Le-ar place ca eu sa vorbesc despre orasul meu natal


    338. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul:
    2.Verbe care exprima obligatii: (to make, to cause, to induce)

    You made him cry! (fara to) - L-ai facut sa planga!
    The crisis caused the stock market to fall (cu to)- Criza a facut ca bursa sa cada
    The teacher convinced the little boy to sing (cu to) - Profesoara l-a convins pe baietel sa cante


    339. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul:
    3.Verbe senzoriale (to hear, to see, to notice, to feel, to watch)
    Aceasta categorie de verbe nu are to.

    I felt him lose his cool - L-am simtit cum isi pierde firea
    He watched the plane vanish in the clouds - El a privit avionul disparand in nori.
    I heard him come in. - L-am auzit intrand
    I will see the teams compete.- Voi vedea echipele intrecandu-se.
    He will notice you sing well - Va observa ca tu canti bine.


    340. Verbe care accepta acuzativul cu infinitivul:
    3.Verbe care exprima activitatea mintala (to think, to consider, to understand)

    I think him to be a great writer. - Cred ca el e un mare scriitor.
    I think (that) he is a great writer - era mai direct
    They consider him to be the future king - Il considera pe el (sa fie) viitorul rege
    He understood her to be a shy person.- El a inteles-o pe ea sa fie o persoana timida


    341. Nominativul unei propozitii este subiectul (un pronume sau un substantiv).
    In anumite situatii in propozitii poate exista un nominativ si un infinitiv intre ele fiind intercalat predicatul propozitiei.
    Aceasta constructie poarta numele de nominativul cu infinitivul

    I want to run - Vreau sa alerg.


    342. Acesta constructie e posibila pentru anumite verbe aflate la pasiv (to make, to say, to know, to believe)

    He was made to apologize by the teacher - A fost pus sa isi ceara scuze de catre profesoara
    That farmer is said to have many acres of land - Fermierul acela se zice ca are multi acri de pamant
    My grandmother was known to help people. - Bunica mea era cunoscuta ca ajuta oamenii
    During the war he was believed to be dead. - In timpul razboiului el era crezut mort


    343. Nominativul cu infinitivul se poate folosi pentru verbele to happen, to seem, to appear, to prove.

    They happen to be my cousins - Ei sunt verii mei
    Your friend seemed to have many plans for the future.- Prietenul tau parea sa aiba multe planuri de viitor
    The dog appeared to bark on command - Cainele parea sa latre la porunca
    I will prove to be worthy of your trust - Voi dovedi ca sunt demn de increderea voastra.


    344. Nominativul cu infinitivul se poate folosi pentru verbul to be urmat de sure, certain sau likely

    He is sure to remember the incident - El cu siguranta isi aminteste de incident
    You are certain to be in the play - Esti cu siguranta in piesa
    She is likely to succeed.- Ea are sanse sa castige.


    345. Pe langa folosirea terminatiei ing la conjugarea continua, aceasta se foloseste si in alte situatii pe post de substantiv, adjectiv sau verb.
    Dupa rolul jucat in propozitie aceasta forma se numeste fie gerunziu fie participiu prezent.

    Substantiv
    Reading is for everybody - Cititul e pentru toata lumea
    Adjectiv
    I am part of a reading club - Fac parte dintr-un club de citit
    Verb
    I enjoy reading - Imi place sa citesc
    I found him reading - L-am gasit citind


    346. Folosirea terminatiei ING pentru formarea substantivelor

    Take your belongings! - Ia-ti lucrurile!
    Skiing is dangerous - Schiatul e periculos
    Catching trout is hard. - Prinderea de pastravi e grea.


    347. Folosirea terminatiei ING pentru formarea adjectivelor

    The fishing boat needs repairs - Barca de pescuit necesita reparatii. -
    The tanning salon is closed - Salonul de brozat e inchis
    The cleaning solution is toxic. - Solutia de curatat e toxica


    348. Folosirea terminatiei ING pentru formarea verbelor

    I like painting - Imi place sa pictez
    I imagine him studying all day - Mi-l imaginez invatand toata ziua
    I saw your parrot flying in my garden - L-am vazut pe papagalul tau zburand la mine in gradina


    349. De multe ori aceste propozitii ce contin forma ING se pot reformula, daca dorim.
    Daca insa suntem siguri de formulare, ele nu trebuie evitate

    Do you mind my smoking? devine Do you mind if I smoke?
    The cleaning solution is toxic. - The solution used for cleaning is toxic
    I like painting - I like to paint


    350. Forma cu ING se poate folosi si in locul expresiilor de forma substantiv care verb care se transforma in adjectiv verb

    fata care canta - the girl that sings
    the ball that bounces - mingea care sare
    the man that sleeps - barbatul care doarme
    devin
    the singing girl
    the bouncing bal
    the sleeping man

    Sleeping beauty - Frumoasa adormita
    Jumping bean - fasole saritoare (o varietate de fasole)


    351. Spre deosebire de alte adjective, aceste adjective cu ing pot fi puse dupa substantiv.
    Ele se scriu cu cratima.
    Insa sensul expresiei se schimba:

    eatimg man - barbat care mananca
    man-eating - care mananca barbati (oameni)

    hunting fox - vupe care vaneaza
    fox hunting - vanatoare de vulpi

    fishing boat - barca de pescuit
    boat-fishing - care pescuieste barci

    diving sky - cer care plonjeza
    sky-diving - care plonjeaza din cer


    352. Exista si adjective compuse in care primul cuvant e un substantiv si al doilea un adjectiv format cu ing.
    Impreuna insa ele formeaza un nou adjectiv.

    jaw-dropping performance - prestatie extraordinara
    jaw-dropping - care cade falca
    mind-boggling idea - idee uluitoare
    mind-boggling - care zapaceste mintea
    eye-popping stunt - cascadorie fantastica
    eye-popping - care scoate ochii


    353. Asa cum am vazut subjonctivul englez e folosit mult mai rar ca in romana.
    In engleza el are numai rolul de a exprima dorinte, cereri pe cand in romana orice verb are subjonctiv.
    In multe cazuri subjonctivul romanesc in englezeste se traduce printr-un verb cu forma ing

    Before eating some people pray. - Inainte sa manance unii oameni se roaga
    Instead of crying over spilt milk buy some more milk. - In loc sa plangi dupa laptele varsat, mai cumpara lapte
    They began working - Ei au inceput sa lucreze
    I like starting new things - Imi place sa incep lucruri noi
    I think seeing a movie is the best idea. - Cred ca sa vedem un film e cea mai buna idee.


    354. Ca si in romana (unde totusi in ziua de azi nu e uzual) subjonctivul (forma cu ing in engleza) poate fi inlocuit cu infinitivul
    Aceasta formulare in engleza e mult folosita, in continuare.
    Unele verbe primesc aceasta inlocuire altele nu.
    Unele nu accepta forma cu ing, si in schimb accepta infinitivul
    Totul depinde de predicatul propozitiei.

    Romaneste
    Vreau sa pictez - Vreau a picta
    Englezeste
    Cazuri cand se foloseste numai infinitivul
    I want to sing - Vreau sa cant
    He decided to come - A hotarat sa vina
    Cazuri cand se foloseste numai forma cu ing
    He mentioned seeing the movie - A mentionat ca a vazut filmul
    Cazuri cand se foloseste oricare forma
    I started to believe/believing him - Am inceput sa il cred
    I tried to finish/finishing this - Am incercat sa termin aceasta


    355. Verbe care sunt folosite numai cu infinitivul:

    afford, agree, aim, appear, arrange, ask, attempt, care, choose, claim, consent, dare, decide, decline, demand, desire, determine, endeavour, expect, fail, fight, grow, guarantee, happen, hasten, help, hesitate, hope, learn, long, manage, neglect, offer, plan, pledge, prepare, pretend, proceed, promise, prove, reckon, refuse, resolve, scorn, seek, seem, strive, struggle, swear, tend, threaten, trouble, undertake, venture, volunteer, vote, vow, wait, wish, would like


    356. Verbe care sunt folosite numai cu forma cu ING:

    admit, adore, anticipate, appreciate, avoid, celebrate, consider, contemplate, defend, defer, delay, deny, detest, describe, discuss, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, explain, face, fancy, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, involve, keep, lie, loathe, mention, mind, miss, pardon, postpone, practise, prevent, quit, recall, recollect, report, resent, resist, risk, save, suggest, tolerate, understand can't help, can't resist, can't stand, it's no use, there is no point/ sense in, it is worth

    357. Lista de verbe dupa care poate veni un verb si la infinitiv si la forma cu ING:

    advise, allow, attempt, begin, bother, cease, come, continue, deserve, dread, fear, forbid, forget, go on, hate, hear, intend, like, love, mean, need, permit, prefer, propose, recommend, regret, remember, require, see, start, stop, try, want, be afraid (of/to), be ashamed (of/to), be sorry(for/to), can't bear, can't stand, care (for/to)


    358. Desi aceste verbe permit ambele forme sensul celor doua forme cateodata difera.

    He forgot to learn - A uitat sa invete
    He forgot learning - A uitat ca a invatat
    He remembered to pay - A tinut minte sa plateasca
    He remembered paying - Si-a amintit ca a platit
    She stopped to talk - S-a oprit sa vorbeasca
    She stopped talking - S-a oprit din vorbit
    I like to ski - Im place sa schiez
    I like skiing - Imi place schiatul


    359. Aceste reguli se refera la verbe care vin dupa alte verbe. Un verb singur poate fi totdeauna la infinitiv sau la forma cu ING.

    To err is human, to forgive is divine. - Erring is human forgiving is divine
    adica
    A gresi e omeneste, a ierta e dumnezeieste - Sa gresim e omeneste sa iertam e dumnezeieste.
    Fiindca sunt doua propozitii ele nu se influenteaza una pe alta. Daca ziceam:
    To forgive erring people is divine - A ierta oameni care gresesc e divin, atunci to err trebuia pus la gerunziu fiindca to forgive cerea acest lucru.
    Observatii:
    1. Proverbul este: To err is human, to forgive divine.
    2. Azi se zice to make a mistake nu to err

    360. Forma cu ING se foloseste dupa anumite prepozitii:

    After writing the letter I mailed it. - Dupa ce am scris scrisoarea am expediat-o
    On hearing this, she started to laugh - Auzind aceasta, ea a inceput sa rada


    361. Lista de prepozitii care cer forma cu ING atunci cand se foloseste un verb dupa ele
    against, at, after, by, on, instead of, talk about, tired of, without

    We are against bombing other countries - Suntem impotriva bombardarii altor tari
    He is good at telling stories - El e bun la spus povesti
    After finishing the paper I went to bed - Dupa ce am terminat lucrarea m-am dus la culcare
    By passing this round I am now qualified for the final - Trecand de aceasta runda, m-am calificat pentru finale.
    On meeting the president he was speechless - La intalnirea cu presedintele el a ramas fara cuvinte
    Instead of going to the circus, let's go to the zoo.- In loc sa mergem la circ hai sa mergem la zoo.
    Let's talk about catching rhinos - Hai sa vorbim despre prinderea de rinoceri
    I am tired of hearing about this. - M-am saturat sa aud de asta
    He left without saying a word - A plecat fara sa zica un cuvant


    362. Cateva exemple de propozitii care in romaneste se traduc cu ca, dar care in engleza folosesc tot forma cu ING:

    I remember seeing him - Imi amintesc ca l-am vazut
    I admit telling her - Recunosc ca i-am spus
    I swear telling the truth - Jur ca am spus adevarul
    cu traduceri exacte
    I remember that I saw him
    I admit that I told her
    I swear that I told the truth


    363. Participiul trecut al verbului to break e broken (a treia forma din lista de verbe neregulate).
    Participiul prezent e breaking.(vezi forma cu ING)

    Ca si in romana participiul trecut al unei actiuni poate deveni adjectiv care sugereaza o insusire dobandita in trecut.

    Breaking news - Stiri foarte noi (care sparg) - foloseste participiul prezent:breaking
    insa
    Broken arm - Mana rupta (sparta) - foloseste participiul trecut broken


    364. Exemple de adjective provenite din participiul trecut

    melted ice - gheata care s-a topit
    melting ice - gheata care se topeste

    sunken treasure - comoara ingropata
    forgotten facts - fapte uitate
    colored eggs - oua vopsite
    fattened calf - vitelul ingrasat
    burnt bread - paine arsa
    heated cofee - cafea incalzita


    365. Participiul Trecut poate fi folosit si fara sa fie adjectiv.
    Pentru noi ca romani e mai directa si de preferat aceasta constructie, pentru cei ce nu sunt avansati.

    A building, damaged by the earthquake, was torn down.- O cladire, avariata de cutremur, a fost demolata
    mai englezeste ar fi fost
    An earthquake damaged building was torn down
    A man, hit by a ball, started yelling - Un barbat, lovit de o minge, a inceput sa strige.


    366. Participiul Perfect reprezinta o actiune terminata care duce la o alta actiune.
    Se formeaza din having si participiul trecut al verbului.

    Having finished the project she went for a walk. - Terminand (Deoarece terminase) proiectul, ea s-a dus sa se plimbe.
    Having spent all his money, the student called home. - Deoarece isi cheltuise toti banii, studentul a sunat acasa.


    367. Imperativul in limba engleza
    Acest timp se foloseste in comenzi, sugestii, instructiuni, invitatii.
    Daca nu e insotitt de Please - te rog ca si in romana de multe ori e nepoliicos
    Subiectul imperativului e subinteles, si se foloseste rar.
    Cand persoana e specificata prin nume, acesta se pune sau la inceputul sau (de preferinta) la sfarsitul propozitiei.

    Nepoliticos:
    Shut up! Taci din gura!
    Get out! - Iesi afara!
    Politicos!
    Please be quiet!
    Please, leave! - Te rog pleaca!
    Se zice:
    Come on! - Haide!
    Andrew! Come on! - Andrew!Haide!
    Come on, Andrew! - Haide, Andrew


    368. Cazurile de imperativ din engleza sunt asemenea limbii romane, anume se foloseste persoana a 2a la toate verbele in afara lui to be
    In cazul verbului to be - a fi la imperativ se pastreaza forma de infinitiv.

    Andrew merge. - Andrew walks. (pers.a 3a)
    Andrew, mergi! - Andrew walk!(pers.a 2a)
    dar
    Andrew este atent. - Andrew is careful.
    Andrew fii atent! - Andrew be careful!

    Observatie:
    Be careful! inseamna Fii atent la ce faci. Fii atent! la lectie se zice Pay attention!


    369. Alta construcitie a imperativului des intalnita, este cea folosind verbul to let - a lasa
    Pentru orice verb care accepta o asemenea constructie Let'ssau Let us inseamna Hai sa

    Open the door and let me come in! - Deschide usa si lasa-ma sa intru!
    Let me in! - lasa-ma sa intru!
    Let me go! - Da-mi drumul!
    Let us pray - Sa ne rugam
    Let's play! - Hai sa ne jucam
    Let's eat! - Hai sa mancam
    Let's dance! - Hai sa dansam!
    Ok, let's! - Bine, hai!


    370. Cateodata se pune Do in fata infinitivului pentru a il face mai politicos.
    Cand punem Do nu mai punem Please - Te rog
    Do cu acest inteles nu se foloseste cu verbe modale
    Please e mult mai mult folosit decat Do pentru a ne exprima politicos.

    Do, come in! - Intrati!
    Do, be quiet - Te rog liniste!
    Do, sit down - Te rog, ia loc!
    Do, come see me!- Te rog, mai treci pe la mine!


    371. Alte exemple de imperativ:

    Take the first turn right. - Ia-o pe prima la dreapta.
    Hurry up!- Grabeste-te!
    Watch out! - Pazea!
    Watch it! - Vezi cum vorbesti!
    Have a good time! - Distractie placuta!
    Have fun! - Distractie placuta
    Sleep well! - Dormi bine (Somn usor)
    Brace yourself - Imbarbateaza-te!
    Get a grip - Aduna-te!
    Hang in there! - Rezista!


    372. Negativul verbului to be la present tense se formeaza astfel:

    I am not - Nu sunt
    You are not - Nu esti
    He is not - El nu e
    She is not - Ea nu e
    We are not - Nu suntem
    You are not - Nu sunteti
    They are not - Nu sunt


    373. Negativul verbului to be la past tense se formeaza astfel:

    I was not - Nu eram
    You were not - Nu erai
    He was not - El nu era
    She was not - Ea nu era
    We were not - Nu eram
    You were not - Nu erati
    They were not - Nu erau


    374. Negativul unui verb care nu e la un timp compus
    Acesta se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do:

    Nu lucrez noaptea - I do not work at night
    Nu stiu unde e - I do not know where it is
    Nu m-a intrebat pe mine - He did not ask me.


    375. Negativul unui verb care e la un timp compus (se foloseste numai NOT)

    Nu lucrez acum - I am not working now
    I will not work tommorow - Nu voi lucra maine
    I haven't been working for weeks - Nu am nai lucrat de saptamani.
    I have not been to Australia - Nu am fost in Australia


    376. Atunci cand folosim Past Tense care nu e un timp compus si deci negatia contine do, do se pune la trecut nu verbul.
    Deasemenea do la prezent devine does la persoana a 3a singular

    I did not wash my hands - Nu m-am spalat pe maini.
    He does not know me - Nu ma cunoaste
    We did not see him there - Nu l-am vazut acolo.


    377. Do not se contracta in don't. Did not in didn't

    I do not smoke - Nu fumez
    She does not teach anymore - Ea nu mai preda
    We do not do that - Nu facem asta
    devin
    I don't smoke
    She doesn't teach anymore
    We don't do that


    378. Present Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I do not wash - I don't wash
    You do not wash - You don't wash
    He does not wash - He doesn't wash
    She do not wash - She doesn't wash
    We do not wash - We don't wash
    You do not wash - You don't wash
    They do not wash - They don't wash


    379. Present Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I am not washing - I'm not washing
    You are not washing - You're not washing
    He is not washing - He's not washing
    She's not washing - She's not washing
    We are not washing - We're not washing
    You are not washing - You aren't washing
    They are not washing - They aren't washing


    380. Past Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I did not wash - I didn't wash
    You did not wash - You didn't wash
    He did not wash - He didn't wash
    She did not wash - She didn't wash
    We did not wash - We didn't wash
    You did not wash - You didn't wash
    They did not wash - They didn't wash


    381. Present Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I have not washed - I haven't washed
    You have not washed - You haven't washed
    He has not washed - He hasn't washed
    She has not washed - She hasn't washed
    We have not washed - We haven't washed
    You have not washed - You haven't washed
    They have not washed - They haven't washed


    382. Past Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I was not washing - I wasn't washing
    You were not washing - You weren't washing
    He was not washing - He wasn't washing
    She was not washing - She wasn't washing
    We were not washing - We weren't washing
    You were not washing - You weren't washing
    They were not washing - They weren't washing


    383. Past Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I had not washed - I hadn't washed
    You had not washed - You hadn't washed
    He had not washed - He hadn't washed
    She had not washed - She hadn't washed
    We had not washed - We hadn't washed
    You had not washed - You hadn't washed
    They had not washed - They hadn't washed


    384. Future Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I will not wash - I won't wash
    You will not wash - You won't wash
    He will not wash - He won't wash
    She will not wash - She won't wash
    We will not wash - We won't wash
    You willnot wash - You won't wash
    They willnot wash - They won't wash


    385. Future Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I will not be washing - I won't be washing
    You will not be washing - You won't be washing
    He will not be washing - He won't be washing
    She will not be washing - She won't be washing
    We will not be washing - We won't be washing
    You will not be washing - You won't be washing
    They will not be washing - They won't be washing


    386. Future Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I will not have washed - I won't have washed
    You will not have washed - You won't have washed
    He will not have washed - He won't have washed
    She will not have washed - She won't have washed
    We will not have washed - We won't have washed
    You will not have washed - You won't have washed
    They will not have washed - They won't have washed


    387. Present Perfect Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I have not been washing - I've not been washing
    You have not been washing - You haven't been washing
    He has not been washing - He hasn't been washing
    She has not been washing - She hasn't been washing
    We have not have washing - We haven't been washing
    You have not been washing - You haven't been washing
    They have not been washing - They havn't been washing


    388. Diateza Pasiva - Present Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I am not washed - I'm not washed
    You are not washed - You're not washed
    He is not washed - He's not washed
    She is not washed - She's not washed
    We are not washed - We're not washed
    You are not washed - You're not washed
    They are not washed - They're not washed


    389. Diateza Pasiva - Present Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I am not being washed - I'm not being washed
    You are not being washed - You're not being washed
    He is not being washed - He's not being washed
    She is not being washed - She's not being washed
    We are not being washed - We're not being washed
    You are not being washed - You're not being washed
    They are not being washed - They're not being washed


    390. Diateza Pasiva - Past Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I was not washed - I wasn't washed
    You were not washed - You weren't washed
    He was not washed - He wasn't washed
    She was not washed - She wasn't washed
    We were not washed - We weren't washed
    You were not washed - You weren't washed
    They were not washed - They were'nt washed


    391. Diateza Pasiva - Present Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I have not been washed - I've not been washed
    You have not been washed - You haven't been washed
    He has not been washed - He hasn't been washed
    She has not been washed - She hasn't been washed
    We have not have washed - We haven't been washed
    You have not been washed - You haven't been washed
    They have not been washed - They havn't been washed


    392. Diateza Pasiva - Past Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I was not being washed - I wasn't being washed
    You were not being washed - You weren't being washed
    He was not being washed - He wasn't being washed
    She was not being washed - She wasn't being washed
    We were not being washed - We weren't being washed
    You were not being washed - You weren't being washed
    They were not being washed - They were'nt being washed


    393. Diateza Pasiva - Past Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I had not been washed - I hadn't been washed
    You had not been washed - You hadn't been washed
    He had not been washed - He hadn't been washed
    She had not been washed - She hadn't been washed
    We had not have washed - We hadn't been washed
    You had not been washed - You hadn't been washed
    They had not been washed - They hadn't been washed


    394. Diateza Pasiva - Future Tense - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I will not be washed - I won't be washed
    You will not be washed - You won't be washed
    He will not be washed - He won't be washed
    She will not be washed - She won't be washed
    We will not be washed - We won't be washed
    You will not be washed - You won't be washed
    They will not be washed - They won't be washed


    395. Diateza Pasiva - Future Continuous - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    Acest timp e prea complicat. Nu se foloseste


    396. Diateza Pasiva - Future Perfect - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    I will not have been washed - I won't have been washed
    You will not have been washed - You won't have been washed
    He will not have been washed - He won't have been washed
    She will not have been washed - She won't have been washed
    We will not have been washed - We won't have been washed
    You will not have been washed - You won't have been washed
    They will not have been washed - They won't have been washed


    397. Diateza Pasiva - Perfect Continuous Tenses- Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    Present Perfect Continuous
    Past Perfect Continuous
    Future Perfect Continuous

    Aceste timpuri devin foarte complicate la diateza pasiva, asa ca nu se folosesc.


    398. Conditionalul - Forma negativa si contractia verbului to wash - a spala.

    Formele de conditional would si should provin de la forma de viitor will asa ca negativul in aceste cazuri se formeaza la fel ca pentru will

    I would not tell him if I were you.
    I wouldn't tell him if I were you
    Nu i-as spune sa fiu in locul tau

    They should not buy a new car
    They shouldn't buy a new car
    Nu e nevoie sa-si cumpere o masina noua


    399. Forma interogativa a verbului to be

    Se formeaza prin inversarea verbului cu subiectul, ca si in romaneste.

    I am happy - Eu sunt fericit(a)
    Am I happy? - Sunt eu fericita?

    Are you a teacher> - Esti profesor?
    Is he your friend? - Este el prietenul tau?
    Are they late for work? - Au intarziat ei la serviciu>
    Are you Swedish? - Esti suedez?
    Am I right? - Am dreptate?
    Were you tired? - Ai fost obosit?


    400. Spre deosebire de romana, in engleza se poate zice Am I? sau chiar I am?.
    Dar cele doua au intelesuri diferite.
    I am? exprima mirare si bucurie.
    Am I? exprima indoiala.
    De exemplu:

    You are in the top ten. - Esti intre primii zece.
    I am? - Da?

    You are not in the top ten. - Nu esti intre primii zece.
    Oh, I'm not? - O, nu?

    You are so happy! - Esti asa de fericit!
    Am I? - Zau?

    You are not smart! - Nu esti destept!
    I'm not, am I? - Nu sunt, nu? (ironic)


    401. Raspunsul la o intrebare de genul Are you happy? poate fi
    Yes - Da
    Yes, I am - Da, sunt
    No - Nu
    No, I am not - Nu, nu sunt

    Are you a farmer? - No.
    You are not a farmer?! - No, I am not.
    Are you?
    Yes!

    Esti fermier? - Nu.
    Nu esti fermier?! - Nu, nu sunt.
    Tu esti?
    Da!


    402. Interogativul in cazul timpurilor necompuse (Present Tense si Past Tense)

    Atunci cand propozitia contine alt verb decat to be (si nu contine un verb modal)iar verbul nu e la o forma compusa, interogativul se formeaza cu ajutorul verbului auxiliar to do NU se face inversarea verbului cu subiectul ca in cazul lui to be.

    You work at night - Lucrezi noaptea.
    You drive - Conduci.
    I know you - Te cunosc
    They all live in a yellow submarine - Ei locuiesc toti intr-un submarin galben.
    devin

    Lucrezi noaptea? - Do you work at night?
    Do you drive? - Conduci?
    Do I know you? - Te cunosc?
    Do they all live in a yellow submarine?- Locuiesc ei toti intr-un submarin galben?


    403. Aunci cand in intrebari se cere folosirea verbului to do acesta preia persoana si timpul verbului de baza.
    Astfel persoana a treia a verbului pierde litera s si la orice persoana verbul ramane la infinitiv.

    He plays cards - El joaca carti
    She rides horses - Ea calareste cai.
    My green parrot flies well - Papagalul meu verde zboara bine.
    You did your homework - Ti-ai facut temele.

    Does he play cards? - El joaca carti?
    Does she ride horses? - Ea calareste?
    Does your green parrot fly well? - Zboara bine papagalul tau verde?

    Did you play cards? - Tu ai jucat carti?
    Did she play cards? - Ea a jucat carti?
    Did they ride horses - Au calarit ei cai? Did your geen parrot fly well? - Zbura bine papagalul tau verde?
    Did you do your homework - Ti-ai facut temele?


    404. La interogatii daca timpul este compus do nu se foloseste dar se schimba ordinea pronumelui cu primul auxiliar.

    You had eaten enough. - Mancasei destul.
    She has always come home for Christmas.- Totdeauna a venit acasa de Craciun.
    You have been jogging lately - Ai facut jogging in ultimul timp.
    We will overcome - Vom invinge.
    . The cowboy is riding in the moonlight. - Cowboyul calareste in lumina lunii.

    Had you eaten enough? - Mancasei destul?
    Has she always come home for Christmas? - A venit ea totdeauna acasa de Craciun?
    Have you been jogging lately? - Ai facut jogging in ultimul timp?
    Will we overcome? - Vom invinge?
    Is the cowboy riding in the moonlight? - Calareste cowboyul la lumina lunii?


    405. Propozitii interogative fara inversare

    You work tonight - Lucrezi diseara
    Do you work tonight - Lucrezi diseara?
    Se poate spune si
    You are working tonight? (deci fara inversare, dar nu este propriu-zis o intrebare, exprima mirarea (You work tonight !?!)

    I like to eat grapefruit. - Imi place sa mananc grep.
    Do you like to eat grapefruit? - Iti place sa mananci grep?
    You like to eat grapefruit?!? - Iti place sa mananci grep?!?

    He has gone to hunt lions.- S-a dus sa vaneze lei.
    Has he gone to hunt lions? - S-a dus sa vaneze lei?
    He has gone to hunt lions?- S-a dus sa vaneze lei?!?


    406. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Present Tense

    I am happy - Eu sunt fericit
    I watch a movie every night - Ma uit la un film in fiare seara.

    Are you happy? - Tu esti fericit?
    Is he happy? - E el fericit?
    Do you watch a movie every night? - Te uiti la un film in fiecare seara?
    Does he watch a movie every night? - Se uita el la un film in fiecare seara?


    407. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Present Continuous

    I am watching a movie. - Ma uit la un film.

    Are you watching a movie? - Te uiti la un film?
    Is she watching a movie? - Ea se uita la un film?
    Are they watching a movie? - Ei se uita la un film?


    408. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Past Tense

    I was happy - Eu eram fericit
    I watched a movie - M-am uitat la un film.

    Was I happy - Eram fericit
    Were you happy? - Erai fericit
    Was she happy? - Era fericita?

    Did you watch a movie? - Te-ai uitat la un film?
    Did they watch a movie - S-au uitat ei la film?


    409. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Present Perfect

    I have been happy in the past - Eu eram fericit in trecut
    I have watched a movie - M-am uitat la un film.

    Have I been happy in the past? - Am fost eu fericit in trecut?
    Has he been happy in the past? - A fost el fericit in trecut?
    Have they been happy in the past? - Au fost ei fericiti in trecut?

    Have you watched a movie? - Te-ai uitat la un film?
    Has she watched a movie? - S-a uitat ea la un film?


    410. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Past Continuous

    I was watching a movie when the lights went off - Ma uitam la un film cand s-au stins luminile.

    Were you watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Te uitai la un film cand s-au stins luminile.
    Was he watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Se uita el la un film cand s-au stins luminile?.
    Were they watching a movie, when the lights went off? - Se uitaU ei la un film cand s-au stins luminile?


    411. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to be si to watch la Past Perfect

    I had been happy until then - Pana atunci fusesem fericit(a).
    I had watched a movie already - Ma uitasem deja la un film.

    Had you been happy untill then? - Pana atunci fusesei fericit(a)?
    Had we been happy untill then? - Pana atunci fusesem noi fericit?

    Had you watched a movie already? - Te uitasei tu deja la un film?
    Had they watched a movie already? - Se uitasera ei deja la un film?


    412. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbelor to watch si to be la Future Tense

    Someday, I will be happy - Intr-o zi voi fi fericit(a).
    I will watch a movie - Ma voi uita la un film.

    Someday, will I be happy? - Voi fi fericit(a) intr-o zi?
    Someday, will they be happy - Voi fi ei(ele) fericiti(e) intr-o zi?

    Will I watch a movie? - Ma voi uita eu la un film? (vezi verbe modale)
    Will they watch a movie? - Se vor uita ei la un film? (vezi verbe modale)


    413. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Future Continuous

    I will be watching a movie at that time - Ma voi uita la un film, la acea ora.

    Will you be watching a movie at that time? - Te vei uita la un film la acea ora?
    Will we be watching a movie at that time? - Ne vom uita la un film la acea ora?


    414. Forma interogativa a verbelor to watch si to be la Future Perfect

    I will have been happy - Voi fi fost fericit(a).
    When this movie is over I will have watched 3 movies - Cand se termina acest film ma voi fi uitat la 3 filme.

    Will you have been happy> - Vei fi fost tu fericit(a)?

    When this movie is over will you have watched 3 movies ?- Cand se termina acest film te vei fi uitat la 3 filme?


    415. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Present Perfect Continuous

    I have been watching a movie all afternoon - M-am uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza.

    Have you been watching a movie all afternoon? - Te-ai uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza?
    Has she been watching a movie all afternoon? - S-a uitat ea la un film toata dupa amiaza?


    416. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Past Perfect Continuous

    I had been watching a movie all afternoon before you came over.- Ma uitasem la un film toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vii tu.

    Had you been watching a movie all afternoon before I came over? - Te uitasei la un film toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vin eu?
    Had he been watching a movie all afternoon before I came over? - Se uitase la un film toata dupa amiaza inainte sa vin eu?

    417. Exemplu: Forma interogativa a verbului to watch la Future Perfect Continuous

    I will have been watching a movie all afternoon by the time it is 5 o'clock.- Ma voi fi uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza pana sa se faca ora 5.

    Will you have been watching a movie all afternoon by the time it is 5 o'clock?- Te vei fi uitat la un film toata dupa amiaza pana sa se faca ora 5?


    418. Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa

    Are + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in aren't + pronume
    Is + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in isn't + pronume
    Do + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in don't + pronume
    Will + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in won't
    Have + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in haven't

    Was + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in wasn't + pronume
    Were + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in weren't + pronume
    Did + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in didn't + pronume
    Had + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in hadn't + pronume

    Would + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in wouldn't + pronume
    Should + pronume + not se contracta intotdeauna in shouldn't + pronume
    Puteti sa procedati astfel:
    Luati interogativul pozitiv si inlocuiti dupa caz, auxiliarul inversat cu una din contractiile de mai sus.
    Altfel porniti de la negatie si faceti inversiunea.

    You are 20 - Ai 20 de ani.
    You are not 20 - Nu ai 20 de ani.

    Are you 20? - Ai 20 de ani?
    Aren't you 20? - N-ai 20 de ani?

    You saw him - L-ai vazut.
    You did not see him - Nu l-ai vazut.

    Did you see him? - L-ai vazut?
    Didn't you see him? - Nu l-ai vazut?


    419. Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa in cazul verbului to be.

    In cazul verbului to be, interogativul negativ se face tot prin inversarea subiectului cu primul dintre verbele auxiliare.
    Am I not - NU se contracta.

    Am I going to Paris? - Merg la Paris?
    Are you hungry? - Ti-e foame?
    Aren't you hungry? - Nu ti-e foame?

    Were you hungry? - Ti-era foame?
    Weren't you hungry? - Nu ti-era foame?

    Have you been hungry? - Ti-a fost foame?
    Haven't you been hungry? - Nu ti-a fost foame?

    Was I quick? - Am fost iute?
    Wasn't I quick? - N-am fost iute?

    Will he be there? - Va fi acolo?
    Won't he be there? - Nu va fi acolo?


    420. Formarea unui interogativ dintr-o propozitie negativa in cazul altui verb decat to be.

    Do you like cheese? - Iti place branza?
    Don't you like cheese - Nu iti place branza?

    Will he paint your portrait? - Iti va picta portretul?
    Won't he paint your portrait? - Nu iti va picta portretul?

    Have you planted your garden? - Ti-ai plantat gradina?
    Haven't you planted your garden? - Nu ti-ai plantat gradina?
    Have you been talking on the phone? - Ai vorbit la telefon?
    Haven't you been talking on the phone?


    421. Formularea raspunsului DA/NU la intrebarile fara negatie.

    Se face in functie de formularea intrebarii.
    La intrebari formulate cu verbul to be, se raspunde tot prin verbul to be.
    La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul to do, se raspunde tot prin to do.
    La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul to have, se raspunde tot prin to have.
    La intrebari formulate cu auxliarul will, se raspunde tot cu will.
    Daca mai multe din aceste auxiliare apar intr-o intrebare, se raspunde cu auxiliarul inversat. (Cel din fata subiectului).

    Do you play the trombone? - Canti la trombon?
    Da - yes
    Da cant - Yes I do (si nu yes I play)
    Da cant la trombon - Yes I do play the trombone
    Nu - No
    Nu, nu cant - No I don't
    No I don't play the trombone

    Are you Romanian? - Yes, I am
    Esti roman(ca) - Da, sunt.

    Am I smart? - Yes, you are
    Sunt destept/desteapta? - Da esti.

    Are we late? - No, we are not
    Am intarziat? - Nu, nu am intarziat

    Did you have a good time? - Yes I did
    Te-ai distrat - Da.
    Do you like ships? - No, I get seasick.
    Iti plac vapoarele? - Nu, am rau de mare.

    Have I offended him? - Yes, you have.
    L-am jignit? Da.

    Had you known about this? - No, I hadn't
    Stiai asta? - Nu, nu stiam

    Will you be telling the teacher? - No I won't
    Ii vei spune profesoarei? - Nu.


    422. Formularea raspunsului DA/NU la intrebarile cu negatie.

    Ca si in romaneste, la aceste intrebari este cateodata greu de raspuns clar.
    Noi zicem Ba da.
    In engleza nu exista ceva echivalent.
    Se poate zice: Of course! - Sigur!
    sau se poate repeta toata propozitia, accentuand, pentru emfaza (in cazul ca raspunsul e da), auxiliarul.

    Don't you play the piano? - Nu canti la pian? Yes, I DO play the piano.
    No, I do not play the piano.


    423. Alte raspunsuri la intrebari

    Of course - Sigur.
    A little - Putin
    A lot - Mult
    Sort of - Intr-un fel
    Not really - Nu prea
    Maybe - Poate


    424. Exista ca si romaneste cuvinte specifice pentru intrebari pentru care regulile de formare a interogatiei se schimba
    Acest lucru e adevarat numai daca aceste cuvinte formeaza subiectul propozitiei.
    In acest caz aceste cuvine reprezinta interogatia si nu e nevoie de alt mod de formare a interogatiei.

    Who - Cine
    What - Ce
    Where - Unde
    When - Cand
    How - Cum
    How - Cat
    Which - Care


    425. Who - Cine

    Who are you? - Cine esti?
    Who won the race? - Cine a castigat cursa? (Raspuns: X won the race - deci who e subiectul)
    Who do you think won? - Tu cine crezi ca a castigat? Aici do you think e intercalat in propozitia Who won?


    426. What - Ce

    What is this? - Ce e asta?
    What is your name - Cum te cheama?(Ce nume ai?)
    What happened? - Ce s-a intamplat?
    What did you say? (aici subiectul e you - Ce ai spus (tu)?
    What time do they open? - La ce ora deschid? (aici subiectul e they - Cine deschid - ei)?
    What is the king like? - Cum este regele (Ca ce este regele)?
    What do you think? - Ce crezi?
    What...like? - Cum...este?
    What was it like - Cum a fost?
    What is the weather like in Katmandu? - Cum e vremea in Katmandu?


    427. Where - Unde

    Where do you live? - Unde locuiesti?
    Where is it? - Unde este asta?
    Where is Djibouti? - Unde e Djibouti?
    Where are you going? - Unde te duci?
    Where did you go on vacation? - Unde ai fost in vacanta?


    428. When - Cand

    When was that? - Cand a fost asta?
    When was World Wae 2? - Cand a fost Al Doilea Razboi Mondial?
    When will they be here? - Cand sosesc?
    When will the universe die out? - Cand va muri universul?


    429. How - Cum

    How are you? - Ce mai faci?
    How is granny? - Ce mai face (Cum e) bunica?
    How about that? - Ce zici de asta?
    How did you do that? - Cum ai facut?
    How do you get there? - Cum ai ajuns acolo?
    How do I look? - Cum arat?


    430. How much - Cat

    How much is it? - Cat costa?
    How often do you go to the movies? - Cat de des mergi la film?
    How hot is it? - Cat de cald e?
    How cold is it? - Cat e de frig (de rece)?
    How long is it? - Cat de lung e?
    How short is it? - Cat e de scurt?
    How big is it? - Cat e de mare?
    How small is it? - Cat e de mic?
    How far away is it? - Cat e de departe?
    How close is it? - Cat e de aproape?
    How old is he? - Cati ani are?
    How fat is he? - Cat e de gras?
    How thin is he? - Cat e de slab?
    How tall is he? - Cat e de inalt?
    How short is he? - Cat e de scund?


    431. Observatie:
    Daca vroiam sa zicem: Cat e de gras! nu mai era intrebare, si ziceam How fat he is!

    How fat he is! - Cat e de gras!
    How thin he is! - Cat e de slab!
    How tall he is! - Cat e de inalt!
    How short he is! - Cat e de scund!


    432. Which - Care

    Which one is better? - Care e mai bun?
    Which should I choose? - Pe care sa il aleg?
    Which is yours? - Care e al tau?


    433. Exista in limba engleza verbe care se numesc Verbe Modale
    Acestea sunt:

    can - a putea
    could - a fi in stare
    may - a avea voie
    might - exprima o posibilitate
    will - exprima vointa
    would - exprima o dorinta de a realiza ceva
    must - trebuie
    shall - exprima o promisiune
    should - ar trebui
    ought to - ar trebui


    434. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici

    1. Nu accepta particula to la infinitiv.

    To can inseamna a face conserve.
    Este altceva decat can - a putea.


    435. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici

    2. Nu au s la prezent persoana a treia:

    I can draw - Eu pot, stiu sa desenez
    You can talk, now - Ai voie (poti), acum sa vorbesti
    He can hurt himself up there - Se poate rani acolo sus.
    She can sing like an angel - Ea poate sa cante ca un inger
    We can trust them - Putem avea incredere in ei.
    You can go together - Puteti merge impreuna
    Shhh, they can hear you. - Shhh, pot sa te auda.


    436. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici

    3. Nu au participiu si nici forma cu ing si de aceea au multe timpuri lipsa

    La timpurile lipsa ele se inlocuiesc prin alte verbe

    can se inlocuieste cu to be able to
    may se inlocuieste cu to be allowed to
    must se inlocuieste cu to have to


    437. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici

    4.La fel ca verbul to be verbele modale nu formeaza interogativul folosind verbul to do ci prin inversarea verbului cu subiectul.

    You can help me - Poti sa ma ajuti
    Can you help me? - Poti sa ma ajuti

    He can hear me. - El poate sa ma auda?
    Can he hear me? - Poate sa ma auda?

    I can come - Pot sa vin (sa fiu acolo).
    Can I come? - Pot sa vin?

    May I? - Imi dai voie?
    Yes, you may - Da, te las.

    I must take this medicine. - Trebuie sa iau acest medicament.
    Must I take this medicine? - Trebuie sa iau acest medicament?
    No, you don't have to. - Nu, nu trebuie.

    Could you help me? - Ai putea sa ma ajuti?


    438. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici

    5.Ca si verbul to be ele nu formeaza negativul folosind verbul to do.

    Yes, I can help you - Da, pot sa te ajut.
    No, I can not help you. - Nu, nu te pot ajuta

    Yes, he can hear you.- Da, el te aude.
    No, he can not hear you.- Nu, el nu te aude.

    You must add the butter - Trebuie sa adaugi untul
    You must not devine deobicei shouldn't


    439. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici

    6.Formele negative deobicei se contracta:
    can not - can't
    could not - couldn't
    may not - nu se contracta si se foloseste ca raspus la o intrebare cu may. E un raspuns taios, de aceea nu se contracta.
    might - might not - nu se contracta
    will - won't
    would - wouldn't
    must - mustn't
    shall - shan't (nu se foloseste)
    should - shouldn't
    ought to - oughtn't (nu se foloseste)

    I can't hear you - Nu te aud
    They couldn't come - Ei nu au putut sa vina
    No, you may not talk - Nu nu poti sa vorbesti.
    He might not know the address. - S-ar putea sa nu ste adresa.
    He won't tell the difference - Nu va (putea) vedea diferenta
    She wouldn't say that - Ea nu ar spune asa ceva.
    You mustn't be late - Nu trebuie sa intarziati
    They shouldn't upset him - Ar trebui sa nu il supere


    440. Verbele Modale - Caracteristici

    7.Sunt urmate de verbe la infinitiv fara to.
    Chiar atunci cand inlocuite cu alt verbe s-ar pune to (sau of)

    We want to ride a horse. - Vrem sa calarim
    We wish to ride a horse. - Dorim sa calarim
    We are trying to ride a horse. - Incercam sa calarim
    We are able to ride a horse. - Suntem in stare sa calarim
    We dream of riding a horse. - Visam sa calarim
    We think of riding a horse. - Ne gandim sa calarim
    dar
    We can ride a horse. - Putem sa calarim
    We could ride a horse. - Am putea sa calarim
    We may ride a horse. - Avem voie sa calarim
    We might ride a horse. - Exista si posibilitatea sa calarim
    We would ride a horse. - Noi am calari
    We must ride a horse. - Trebuie sa calarim
    We shall ride a horse. - Promitem sa calarim
    We should ride a horse. - Ar fi bine sa calarim


    441. La prezent se foloseste must/might/could/may/can't

    It's nine, so their train must have left - E 9, deci trenul trebuie sa fi plecat. (Arata ca suntem destul de siguri de afirmatia noastra)
    It's ten so they might come soon - E 10 deci ar putea veni curand (poate)
    It's eleven, they could be lost. - E 11, s-ar putea sa se fi ratacit.(poate)
    They may have missed the train. - Poate au pierdut trenul(poate).
    They can't still be at home - Nu mai pot fi acasa (suntem destul de siguri de acest lucru)


    442. Folosim will respectiv won't cand suntem foarte siguri de afirmatiile noastre.
    Observati ca will aici nu are rol de auxiliar in Future Tense.

    They will be on the train by now. - Ei trebuie sa fie in tren pana la ora asta
    No, I won't tell you - Nu, nu iti spun


    443. Should respectiv shouldn't se folosesc pentru a face supozitii despre lucruri care dupa cate stim noi asa ar trebui sa fie:

    They should be here by now - Ar fi trebuit sa fie aici la ora asta.
    It shouldn't take long - N-ar trebui sa dureze mult


    444. Pentru probabilitati se poate folosi can in cazul a ceva posibil la modul general:

    Train tickets can be expensive. - Biletele de tren pot fi scumpe


    445. Cand vorbim de posibilitati specifice folosim could

    They could be stuck in traffic (nu can be) - Ar putea fi blocati in trafic


    446. In schimb cand vorbim de trecut, could il inlocuieste pe can.

    They could have been stuck in traffic (nu could be care este prezentul)- Ar fi putut fi blocati in trafic.


    447. Could se transforma in could be pemtru o posibilitate generala din trecut.
    Altfel se foloseste could have been

    Long ago, people could be happy even without running water.- Demult, oamenii puteau fi fericiti si fara apa curenta
    He could have been lost in the woods when I called him and he didn't answer - Putea sa se fii ratacit in padure cand l-am strigat si nu mi-a raspuns.


    448. Folosim will have, should have + participiul trecut pentru probabilitati trecute.

    They will have sold there products yesterday - Ei isi vor fi vandut produsele ieri. (nu prea este folosit)
    He should have been back yesterday.- Trebuia sa se intoarca de ieri.


    449. Urmatoarele verbe modale sunt folosite pentru actiuni din trecut: Must, might, could, may, can't + have + past participle

    My dog must have kept you up last night.- Cainele trebuie sa te fi tinut treaz toata noaptea
    He might have been hungry - Poate ca ii era foame.
    He could havr been frightened by something - Poate ca au fost speriati de ceva
    He may have been ill - Poate ca era bolnav
    He can't have barked for nothing - Nu poate sa fii latrat degeaba.


    450. Verbele modale exprima de multe ori putinta de a face ceva.

    Aceasta este de exemplu abilitatea generala de a face ceva, abilitate care daca este adevarata, este totdeauna adevarata, cum este vorbitul unei limbi straine de exemplu.
    Alte abilitati sunt specifice, exista sau nu in anumite momente, cum ar fi ca o persoana sa-si mentina echilibrul, sau sa aiba destui bani ca sa plateasca ceva.


    451. Can sau can't se folosesc si pentru abilitati generale si pentru abilitati specifice.

    I can ride a bike - Eu pot sa merg cu bicicleta
    I can pay - Pot eu sa platesc
    He can't sing because he is hoarse.- Nu poate sa cante pentru ca e ragusit
    We can't send the letter today. - Nu putem sa trimitem astazi scrisoarea


    452. La trecut can/can't cand exprima abilitati generale se transforma in could/couldn't

    I could ride a bike even in first grade.- Puteam sa merg pe bicicleta chiar si in clasa intai
    I could pay all my bills before the crisis - Inainte de criza, puteam sa-mi platesc toate facturile.
    We couldn't send the letters today - Nu am putut sa trimitem azi scrisorile


    453. Pentru abilitati specifice avute in trecut se foloseste verbul to be able to anume lui can/can't in acest caz ii corespunde was able to/couldn't

    When the fire started, because there was no wind, I was able to put it out by myself. - Cand a inceput incendiul, deoarece nu era vant, am putut sa-l sting singur.
    We couldn't find the lost dog. - Nu am putut sa gasim cainele pierdut
    I was able to open the door though it was stuck - Am reusit sa deschid usa desi era intepenita


    454. Could/couldn't poate reprezenta o abilitate din trecut care nu mai exista in prezent:

    I could have played the violin but I didn't practice enough.- As fi putut sa cant la vioara, dar nu am exersat destul.
    We could have come earlier. - Puteam sa venim mai devreme


    455. La viitor can/can't devine will be able to/won't be able to in cazul abilitatilor generale.

    I will be able to repair a TV set after those classes. - Voi putea sa repar un televizor, dupa ce urmez cursurile acelea.
    He won't be able to understand those formulas. - Nu va fi in stare sa inteleaga acele formule.


    456. In cazul abilitatii specifice la viitor can/can't ramane can/can't.

    I can come see you tomorrow - Pot sa vin sa te vad maine
    I can't take the exam next week.- Nu pot sa dau examenul saptamana viitoare.


    457. Verbele modale have to, must, should pot exprima obligatia de a face ceva

    I have to keep it a secret - Trebuie sa pastrez secretul
    You must be polite - Trebuie sa fii politicos
    You should speak louder - Ar trebui sa vorbesti mai tare


    458. Have to reprezinta o obligatie puternica, mai ales impusa din afara

    Children have to learn to read - Copii trebuie sa invete sa citeasca
    The fugitive has to turn himself in. - Fugarul trebuie sa se predea


    459. Prin urmare don't have to reprezinta lipsa unei obligatii.

    De multe ori se pronunta apasat.
    Don't have to nu te restrictioneaza de la a face ceva.
    Inseamna doar ca nu este nevoie, dar daca vrei sa faci este alegerea ta.

    I don't have to go to college, but I would like to. - Nu trebuie sa merg la facultate, dar mi-ar placea


    460. Must este de asemeni o obligatie puternica, mai ales cand e venita de la vorbitor.

    I must clean my room - Trebuie sa-mi fac curat in camera


    461. Mustn't sububliniaza ca nu este voie sau ca este o idee proasta.

    You mustn't cross the street if there is no trafficlight. Trebuie sa nu traversezi daca nu exista stop.


    462. Should/shouldn't reprezinta o obligatie mai putin stringenta:

    You should exercise daily - Trebuie sa faci miscare zilnic
    You shouldn't quarrel.- Nu trebuie sa va certati


    463. La trecut have to/don't have to devine had to /didn't have to

    I had to go to bed at nine as a child - Trebuia sa ma culc la noua cand eram copil
    I didn't have to rescue the cat, but I wanted to. - Nu eram obligat sa salvez pisica, dar asa am vrut.


    464. Must la trecut devine tot had to

    I had to clean my room last week because my friend was coming over. - A trebuit sa-mi fac curat in camera saptamana trecuta, pentru ca venea in vizita pritenul/prietena mea.


    465. Must not la trecut nu exista.



    466. Should/ shouldn't devine la trecut should have/shouldn't have si exprima un regret

    You should have saved some money. - Ar fi trebuit sa economisesti niste bani
    I shouldn't have yelled at my best friend. - Nu trebuia sa tip la prietenul meu cel mai bun


    467. Verbele modale can, could si may pot exprima o permisiune pe care vorbitorul o cere sau o primeste.

    Can I drive the car? Yes you can/No you can't - Pot(imi dai voie) sa conduc masina? Da, poti/Nu, nu poti
    Could I borrow this book? Yes you could/No you couldn't - As putea sa imprumut aceasta carte? Da/Nu.
    May I join you? Yes you may / No you may not.- Pot sa stau cu voi? Da poti/ Nu nu poti.


    468. Verbele will si would pot exprima obiceiuri, tabieturi si in acest context de multe ori insotesxc subjonctivul.

    I would often have a cup of cofee in the morning. - De multe ori beam o cafea dimineata
    I will always sing in the shower! - Totdeauna voi canta cand fac dus!


    469. Sunt intrebari care in romana se traduc prin nu-i asa?

    Ele insa exprima mai mult si deseori depind de intonatia celui care le pronunta.
    Se formeaza cu verbe auxiliare sau cu verbe modale

    You'll be there, won't you? - Vei fi acolo, nu?
    You ate all the cake, didn't you! - Ai mancat tot tortul, nu-i asa? (spus cu mare suparare)
    I can come, can't I? - Pot sa vin si eu, nu?
    He is so smart isn't he? - E atat de destept, nu-i asa? (entuziasm)
    He is that smart, is he? - Asa-i de destept, da?(mare indoiala)
    They lost the money, didn't they? - Au pierdut banii nu? (banuiala sincera)
    They lost the money did they? - Au pierdut banii, da?(suspiciune)


    470. Formarea de Intrebari Disjunctive (CLASICE)

    Pasul A.

    1. Daca propozitia de baza e afirmativa - disjunctia se formeaza prin adaugarea unei negatii.
    2. Daca propozitia de baza e negativa - disjunctia se formeaza prin adaugarea unei afirmatii.

    It is hot today, isn't it?
    It is not hot today, is it?

    Pasul B.

    Disjunctia e o intrebare
    1.Pentru verbe modale, se foloseste verbul modal respectiv.
    2.Pentru verbul to be - se foloseste verbul to be (cu inversarea tipica intrebarilor)
    3.Pentru orice alt verb se foloseste particula necesara timpului respectiv (do, does, will, has etc) dar verbul din propozitie se omite

    You can sing, can't you?
    He is here, isn't he?
    You play the piano, don't you?

    Atentie!
    NU SE ZICE: You play the piano, don't you play the piano? sau He is here, isn't he here? (daca TOTUSI zicem asa punctul urmator (C) nu se mai respecta)

    Pasul C.

    Intonatia e ca pentru o afirmatie, nu o intrebare (se coboara tonul la sfarsit)

    Alte Exemple

    I should come too, shouldn't I? - Ar trebui sa vin si eu, nu-i asa?
    You will be there, won't you? - Vei fi acolo,nu-i asa?
    He hasn't arrived, has he? - Nu a sosit, nu-i asa?
    She knows English, doesn't she? - Ea stie engleza, nu-i asa?


    471. Tipul clasic de Intrebare Disjunctiva

    You are a movie star, aren't you? - Esti actor/actrita nu-i asa?


    472. Al doilea tip de Intrebari Disjunctive din limbajul vorbit:

    (So), you are a movie star are you? - Deci esti actor/actrita...(nu prea crezi asta)


    473. 1.To Awake - Awoke - Awoken: A se trezi

    My noisy parrot awakes me every morning - Papagalul meu zgomotos ma scoala in fiecare dimineata


    474. 2.To Be - Was/Were - Been: A Fi

    This is my house - Aceasta este casa mea
    Where there is a will there is a way - Unde exista o vointa, exista si o cale
    Two plus three is 5 - 2 + 3 fac 5


    475. 3.To Bear - Bore - Borne: - A purta

    I bear all the responsibility for what happened - Eu port toata raspunderea pentru ceea ce s-a intamplat.
    She bore the basket on her head - Ducea cosul pe cap
    He bore the pain in silence - El suporta durerea in liniste


    476. 4.To Beat - Beat - Beaten - A Bate

    I beat you at chess! Hahaha! - Te-am batut la sah, hahaha! I beat the carpets monthly - Bat lunar covoarele


    477. 5.Become - Became - Become - A deveni

    He became the best football coach in the world - A devenit cel mai bun antrenor de fotbal din lume
    What became of him? - Ce s-a ales de el?
    Does white become me? - Mi se potriveste albul?


    478. 6.Begin - Began - Begun - A incepe

    I began writing my thesis - Am inceput sa-mi scriu teza de doctorat
    This does not even begin to cover the costs - Aceasta nici nu incepe sa acopere costurile


    479. 7.Bend - Bent - Bent - A indoi

    The car door was bent in the accident - Usa de la masina s-a indoit in accident
    Some lawyers bend the truth - Unii avocati distorsioneaza adevarul
    Will you bend the rule a bit, this time? - Vrei sa faci o mica exceptie de la regula, de data asta?


    480. 8.Bet - Bet - Bet - A pune pariu

    That is the horse I bet my money on - Acesta e calul pe care mi-am pariat banii.
    Your best bet is to see a lawyer - Cea mai buna solutie e sa mergi la un avocat
    I bet you'll like the trip - Pun pariu ca o sa-ti placa calatoria


    481. 9.Bid - Bid - Bid - A oferi un pret

    Let the bidding begin! - Sa inceapa ofertele de pret!
    He bid the kind family farewell - Si-a luat la revedere de la familia buna la inima.


    482. 10.Bind - Bound - Bound - A lega (sfori, carti etc)

    Serfs in the Middle Ages were bound to the land - Iobagii din Evul Mediu erau legati de pamant
    The villagers bound up the robber - Satenii l-au legat pe hot


    483. 11.Bite - Bit - Bitten - A musca

    He was bitten by 22 cats and a kitten - A fost muscat de 22 de pisici si un pisoi.
    He bit the bait - A muscat din momeala
    A mosqito bit me - M-a ciupit un tantar


    484. 12.Bleed - Bled - Bled - A sangera

    His nose was bleeding - Ii curgea sange din nas.
    The color of the shirt bled into the other fabrics and now everything is brown - Culoarea de la camasa s-a raspandit in celelalte materiale si acum totul e maroniu


    485. 13.Blow - Blew - Blown - A sufla

    The wind blew his hat off - Vantul i-a luat palaria
    Blow your nose! she said to her little boy. - Sufla-ti nasul! a spus ea baietelului ei.
    The bomb almost blew up in my face! - Bomba aproape ca mi-a explodat in fata!
    He blew out the candles - A stins lumanarile (sufland in ele)


    486. 14.Break - Broke - Broken - A (se) sparge, A se strica

    He broke the vase! - A spart vaza!
    He broke his arm! - Si-a rupt mana!
    The TV is broke. - Televizorul e stricat.
    He broke the world record - A depasit recordul mondial
    He broke the law - A incalcat legea
    They broke up - S-au despartit.
    We'll break for cofee. - Vom face o pauza de cafea.


    487. 15.Bring - Brought - Brought - A aduce

    I brought supplies for the troops - Am adus provizii pentru trupe
    The enemy was brought to his knees - Dusmanul a fost infrant(ingenuncheat)
    The quarrel brought out the worst in him - Cearta a scos la iveala toate caracteristicile lui negative
    He brought it upon himself - Si-a facut-o cu mana lui.
    It was brought to my attention - Mi s-a semnalat


    488. 16.Build - Built - Built - A construi

    The house was built around 1850 - Casa a fost construita in jurul anului 1850
    The house had a shelf built-in the wall. - Casa avea un raft incorpoat in perete


    489. 17.Burn - Burnt/Burned - Burnt/Burned - A arde

    He burns all his letters - Isi arde toate scrisorile
    His job is burning him out - Slujba il epuizeaza


    490. 18.Burst - Burst - Burst - A plesni, a fi plin ochi, a izbucni

    The kid was bursting with energy - Copilul plesnea de energie
    The balloon burst from the heat - Balonul a explodat de la caldura.
    The crowd burst out laughing - Multimea a izbucnit in ras.
    He burst out the door - A iesit cu putere (a izbucnit) pe usa.


    491. 19.Buy - Bought - Bought - A cumpara

    I bought a new refridgerator - Am cumparat un frigider nou.
    He didn't buy my excuse - Nu a crezut scuza mea
    Going by taxi will buy you some time - Daca mergi cu taxi-ul mai castigi niste timp.


    492. 20.Cast - Cast - Cast - A arunca (doar anumite lucruri, multe din ele nautice)

    He cast a glance - A aruncat o privire
    The sea cast them to shore - Marea i-a aruncat la tarm
    The fisherman cast his net - Pescarul si-a aruncat plasa de pescuit in apa
    The fishermat cast the fishing line into the sea - Pescarul si-a aruncat firul de pescuit in apa
    This certainly casts some doubt over his innocence - Aceasta arunca cu siguranta o indoiala asupra nevinovatiei lui.
    In the summer, I like sitting in the long shadow cast by the tower - Vara imi place sa stau la umbra aruncata de turn.


    493. Catch - Caught - Caught - A prinde

    He caught the ball - A prins mingea.
    He caught a cold - A racit
    He was caught stealing - A fost prins furand
    He caught the bus - A prins autobuzul
    I didn't catch all you said - Nu am prins tot ce ai spus


    494. 22.Choose - Chose - Chosen - A alege

    She was chosen for the team - A fost aleasa in echipa
    You may leave if you choose - Poti pleca, daca doresti.
    I cannot choose to stand aside - Nu pot sa aleg sa nu ma implic.


    495. 23.Clap - Clapped/Clapt - Clapped/Clapt - A bate din palme, a incropi

    The children were clapping their hands - Copii bateau din palme
    They clapped up a garage - Au incropit un garaj


    496. 24.Cling - Clung - Clung - A se agata, a se tine strans

    The bus passengers were clinging to the seats in front during the bumpy ride. - Pasagerii autobuzului se tineau de scaunele din fata in timpul calatoriei cu denivelari.
    They cling to old-fashioned ideas. - Ei se agata de idei invechite


    497. 25.Clothe - Clad/Clothed - Clad/Clothed - A imbraca (cuvant vechi)

    The queen was clothed in gold and silver - Regina era imbracata in aur si argint
    Trees clothed in a rainbow of colors - Copaci imbracati intr-un curcubeu de culori


    498. 26.Come - Came - Come - A veni

    Come see me! - Vino sa ma vezi!
    They came to a conclusion - Au ajuns la o concluzie
    My family comes first - Familia vine intai (are prioritate)
    The project is coming along very well - Proiectul inainteaza foarte bine.
    A wrench would come in handy - Un cleste ar fi util
    It's all coming back to me now. - Incep sa imi amintesc totul


    499. 27.Cost - Cost - Cost - A costa

    How much does asparagus cost? - Cat costa sparanghelul
    It almost cost me my life - Aproape ca m-a costat viata


    500. 28.Creep - Crept - Crept - A se tara

    A spider was creeping up the wall - Un paianjen se urca pe perete
    Depression can creep up on you - Depresia poate sa te cuptinda pe nesimtite


    501. 29.Cut - Cut - Cut - A taia

    He cut the apple in two - A taiat marul in doua
    I have to cut my hair - Trebuie sa ma tund
    That child sometimes cuts class - Copilul acela cateodata chiuleste
    That paragraph was cut out - Acel paragraf a fost scos
    He cut in line in front of me - A intrat in fata mea, peste rand
    He was cut off from the will - A fost scos din testament
    I'm not cut out to be a hero. - Nu sunt facut sa fiu erou


    502. 30.Dare - Dared - Dared - a provoca, a indrazni

    I dare you to jump from the tree - Te provoc sa sari din copac
    Why would I dare do something as silly as that - De ce as indrazni sa fac ceva atat de necugetat?


    503. 31.Deal - Dealt - Dealt - A se ocupa de, a avea de-a face cu, a face afaceri, a imparti carti de joc

    He deals with a lot everyday - Se ocupa de multe lucruri zilnic.
    As a teacher she deals with many parents - Ca profesoara are de-a face cu multi parinti
    He deals in cutlery - El vinde tacamuri


    504. 32.Dig - Dug - Dug - A sapa

    I want to dig up my garden this spring - Vreau sa imi sap gradina in primavara asta
    Don't dig your nails into my arm like that! - Nu-ti mai baga unghiile in bratul meu!
    He dug up a treasure!Unbelivable! - A scos din pamant o comoara! Formidabil!


    505. 33.Dive - Dived/Dove - Dived

    He dived into the crowd - A plonjat in multime
    He dived into the ocean waves - A plonjat in valurile oceanului


    506. 34.Do - Did - Done - A face

    The boy did his homework - Baiatul si-a facut temele
    He did the dishes - El a spalat vasele
    He always does his duty - El totdeauna isi face datoria
    There is still a lot to do - Mai sunt multe de facut
    What do you do for a living? - Cu ce te ocupi?
    Do your best, leave the rest - Fa totul cat mai bine, nu te deranja de altceva
    She does her hair every morning - Isi face parul in fiecare dimineata
    He did jail time for car theft - A facut puscarie pentru furt de masini
    Do as the teacher says - Fa cum iti spune profesoara
    A ham sandwich would do nicely - Un sendvis cu sunca ar merge bine
    That should do it - Asta rezolva problema
    I could do without this - As trai si fara asta (spus de ceva care te deranjeaza)


    507. 35.Draw - Drew - Drawn - A desena, a scoate

    He can't draw - El nu poate sa deseneze
    I will draw the conclusions - Voi prezenta concluziile.
    They still draw water from a fountain - Ei inca scot apa din fantana.
    The nurse came to draw blood - Asistenta medicala a venit sa ia sange
    If you wear a turban you will draw attention - Daca porti un turban ai sa atragi atentie


    508. 36.Dream - Dreamt/Dreamed - Dreamt/Dreamed - A visa

    I dream of going to Hawaii - Visez sa merg in Hawaii
    Last night, I dreamed I was flying over the moon - Azi noapte am visat ca zburam deasupra lunii.


    509. 37.Drink - Drank - Drunk - A bea

    I drink a cup of milk in the morning - Dimineata beau un pahar de lapte.
    I sat in the forest, and drank in the beauty around me. - Am stat in padure si am absorbit frumusetea din jur.


    510. 38.Drive - Drove - Driven - A conduce

    He drives a taxi - El conduce un taxi
    She'll be driving six white horses - Ea va conduce sase cai albi.
    The enemy was driven out of the country - Inamicul a fost izgonit din tara
    He drives me crazy - Ma innebuneste
    Water drives the turbine - Apa pune in miscare turbina
    What are you driving at? - Unde bati?


    511. 39.Eat - Ate - Eaten - A manca

    I love eating spaghetti and cheese - Im place sa mananc spaghetti cu branza
    Rust ate away the pillars of the old bridge - Rugina a mancat stalpii vechiului pod.
    What's eating you? - Ce te roade?


    512. 40.Fall - Fell - Fallen - A cadea

    When the apple fell, Newton discovered gravity - Cand a cazut marul Newton a descoperit gravitatia
    London bridge is falling down - Podul Londrei se prabuseste (incetul cu incetul)
    Night falls earlier in winter. - Noaptea vine mai devreme iarna
    The knight fell in love with the beautiful princess - Cavalerul s-a indragostit de frumoasa printesa
    The peasant fell to his knees when the heavenly light shone upon him - Taranul a cazut in genunchi atunci cand lumina divina s-a varsat asupra lui.
    My eyes fell on a letter he had on his desk - Ochii mi-au cazut pe o scrisoare de pe biroul lui
    When I told him the stock market crashed, his face fell - Cand i-am spus ca bursa a cazut, i-au cazut trasaturile.
    When does Easter fall this year? - Cand cade Pastele anul acesta? A lot of rain has fallen this spring. - A plouat mult in primavara asta.
    The governement fell - A cazut guvernul
    If you don't study you'll fall behind - Daca nu studiezi vei ramane in urma
    This cottage is falling apart - Casuta asta se darama (incetul cu incetul)


    513. 41.Feed - Fed - Fed - A hrani

    I need somebody to feed my chickens, said Sfanta Vineri. - Am nevoie de cineva care sa-mi hraneasca puii, spuse Sfanta Vineri.
    This region alone feeds the towns around it. - Aceasta regiune singura hraneste orasekle din jur.


    514. 42.Feel - Felt - Felt - A simti

    Do you feel the spirit of Christmas in the air? - Simti in aer spritul Craciunului?
    I felt my heart sink - Am simtit cum mi-a cazut inima.
    I felt her little hand tugging at my skirt - I-am simtit maina mica tragandu-ma de fusta
    A blind man sees by feeling with his hands - Cineva orb vede pipaind cu mainile.
    I feel for you - Te inteleg, sunt alaturi de tine.


    515. 43.Fight - Fought - Fought - A se bate, a se certa

    We will fight to the death - Ne vom bate pana la moarte
    My neighbors fight all the time - Vecinii mei se cearta tot timpul
    He was fighting off a swarm of flies - Usuia de pe el un roi de muste
    The child fought back tears - Copilul si-a luptat sa nu planga


    516. 44.Find - Found - Found - A gasi

    I need to find my cat - Trebuie sa-mi gasesc pisica
    Will I ever find happiness? - Voi gasi vreodata fericirea?
    I find this story to be far-fetced. - Mi se pare aceasta poveste, exagerata.
    Stop finding fault with me! - Nu imi mai tot gasi cusururi!


    517. 45.Fit - Fit/Fitted - Fit/Fitted - A potrivi

    Can you fit into this dress? - Te incape rochia asta>
    I can't fit these shoes into the box. - Nu reusesc sa bag acesti pantofi in cutie.
    This fall scenery fits my mood - Aceasta priveliste de toamna se potriveste cu starea mea de spirit


    518. 46.Flee - Fled - Fled - A fugi (dar nu a alerga de placere)

    They tried to flee the country - Au incercat sa fuga din tara
    The robber fled from the house with the police at his heels - Hotul a fugit din casa cu politia dupa el
    He fled the scene of the crime - A fugit de la locul crimei.


    519. 47.Fling - Flung - Flung - A arunca

    He flung himself in a chair - S-a aruncat intr-un scaun.
    David flung a stone at Goliath - David a aruncat cu o piatra in Goliath
    He flung up his arms in hopelessness - Si-a aruncat bratele in sus in disperare.


    520. 48.Fly - Flew - Flown - A zbura

    A happy parrot flew high into the sky - Uu papagal fericit s-a inaltat sus in cer.
    He flew over the North Pole - A zburat peste Polul Nord
    The ship flew the Romanian flag - Vaporul arbora drapelul romanesc.
    Splinters were flying everywhere - Aschii zburau peste tot.


    521. 49.Forbid - Forbade/Forbad - Forbidden - A interzice

    I forbid you to go! - Iti interzic sa te duci
    God forbid! - Doamne fereste!


    522. 50.Foresee - Foresaw - Foreseen - A prevedea(

    He did not foresee that - Nu s-a asteptat la asta
    An unforeseen storm hit the Gulf of Mexico. - O furtuna neasteptata a lovit Golful Mexic


    523. 51.Foretell - Foretold - Foretold - A prevesti

    Nostradamus foretold many future events - Nostradamus a prevesit multe evenimente viitoare


    524. 52.Forget - Forgot - Forgotten - A uita

    An elephant never forgets - Un elefant nu uita niciodata


    525. 53.Forgive - Forgave - Forgiven - A ierta

    Forgive me for asking: How old are you? - Iarta-ma ca te intreb: Cati ani ai?
    He forgave the burglar - El l-a iertat pe hpt
    They say to forgive and forget is a wise idea - Se spune ca a ierta si a uita e o idee inteleapta.


    526. 54.Forsake - Forsook - Forsaken - A uita de, a abandona

    Someday, this God forsaken land will grow more than weeds. - Intr-o zi, acest pamant uitat de Dumnezeu va creste si altceva in afara de buruieni.


    527. 55.Freeze - Froze - Frozen - A ingheta

    That lake freezes in the winter - Lacul acela ingheata iarna
    He froze in his tracks when he saw the bear - A inlemnit in cale cand a vazut ursul.
    My computer froze, it needs rebooted - Computerul nu mai merge, trebuie repornit.
    He froze in front of the camera - A inlemnit in fata aparatului de filmat.


    528. 56.Get - Got - Got/Gotten - A primi, a intelege

    I got a puppy for my friend - Am luat un catelus pentru prietenul meu
    I got The Three Musketeers from the library - Am luat "Cei 3 Muschetari" de la biblioteca.
    How do you get there? - Cum ajungi acolo?
    I don't get it - Nu inteleg
    Get a haircut - Tunde-te!
    I got off at the wrong station - M-am dat jos la alta statie (decat trebuia)
    I got on the next train - M-am suit in urmatorul tren
    Everyday I get to school at 8 in the morning - In fiecare zi ajung la scoala la 8 dimineata
    I will stay at home because I got the flu - Voi sta acasa fiindca sunt racit
    I didn't get your name when we were introduced. - Nu ti-am retinut numele cand am fost prezentati
    We've got a little cabin in the mountains - Avem o mica cabana in munti
    I hope I got my point across - Sper ca m-am facut inteles
    Word got around. - Stirea s-a raspandit
    They barely get by - Abia se descurca cu banii
    Getting back to the subject - Intorcandu-ne la subiect
    Let's get to the subject - Hai sa ajungem la subiect
    Let's get down to work - Hai sa ne apucam de treaba. Don't get into trouble - Nu da de vreo belea
    Get out of here - Iesi afara de aici!
    The whole family got together last week - Intreaga familie s-a adunat saptamana trecuta
    We get along well - Ne intelegem bine.
    I get up at six - Ma scol la 6.


    529. 57.Give - Gave - Given - A da

    We gave the waiter a tip - I-am dat chelnerului un bacsis
    He gave me a pencil/a car/a house/a drink ... - Mi-a dat un creion/o masina/o casa/o bautura...
    Give me an example/your word/a piece of advice... - Mi-a dat un exemplu/cuvantul lui/un sfat...
    He gave me a nod - Mi-a facut semn din cap
    Give him my best wishes. - Transmite-i toate urarile mele de bine.
    He gave his life - Si-a dat viata
    He gave out a scream - A tipat
    He gave a party - A dat o petrecere
    He gives me the creeps - Imi da fiori.(Ma inspaimanta)
    A cow gives milk - O vaca da lapte
    He gave me a wink - Mi-a facut cu ochiul.
    Those doors give onto the garden - Acele usi dau in gradina
    He gave me back my binoculars - Mi-a dat inapoi binoclul
    He finally gave in to my insistance - In sfarsit a cedat insistentelor mele
    The cow gave out a deep Moo - Vaca a scos un Moo adanc
    The robber gave himself up - Hotul s-a predat
    I gave up looking for buried treasures - Am reuntat sa mai caut comori ingropate


    530. 58.Go - Went - Gone - A pleca, a merge, a se duce

    I go by bus - Ma duc cu autobuzul
    Go away! - Pleaca de aici!
    He went on and on about how unfair this is - A vorbit intruna ce nedreapta e situatia
    I am going to do this - Voi face acest lucru
    He went mad - A innebunit
    That book goes there - Cartea aceea merge acolo
    Orange and green go well together
    It goes without saying - Se subintelege
    All these rugs have to go - Toate aceste covoare trebuie sa dispara
    How are things going? - Cum merg lucrurile
    I go: Whaaat? - Zic: Ceee?
    As time goes by I like this house more - Cu trecerea timpului imi place mai mult casa asta.
    Can I go in there? - Pot sa intru acolo? Let's go out! - Hai sa iesim!


    531. 59.
    Grind - Ground - Ground - A macina

    Grind the wheat at the mill! - Macina-ti graul la moara!
    He would grind his teeth - Scrasnea din dinti


    532. 60.Grow - Grew - Grown - A creste

    My apple tree is growing nicely - Marul meu creste frumos
    The suspense was growing every minute - Suspansul crestea din clipa in clipa
    He grows a beard - Isi lasa barba
    He grows chickens - Creste pui
    The days grow shorter - Zilele se scurteaza
    Nights grow longer - Noptile se lungesc. He grew up - S-a facut mare.


    533. 61.Hang - Hung/Hanged - Hung/Hanged - A atarna, a spanzura
    Hang - Hung - Hung - verb neregulat inseamna a atarna
    Hang - Hanged - Hanged - verb regulat inseamna a spanzura

    I will hang the painting in the livingroom - Voi atarna tabloul in sufragerie
    He will hang at dawn - Va fi spanzurat la rasaritul soarelui.
    He hung his head in shame - Si-a lasat capul in jos de rusine
    We hung out together in highschool - Ieseam impreuna in liceu.


    534. 62.Have - Had - Had - A avea

    I have a car - Am o masina
    Can I have some mashed potatoes - Pot sa iau niste piure? May I have a look? - Pot sa arunc o privire?
    I had a talk with him. - Am avut o discutie cu el.
    Let's have a party! - Hai sa dam o petrecere!
    I had a good time - M-am distrat bine.
    I must have breakfast/lunch etc first - Intai trebuie sa mananc de dimineata/pranz etc.
    They have 2 children - Ei au 2 copii
    She had a baby. - A nascut.
    This has nothing to do with you - Aceasta treaba nu are legatura cu tine.


    535. 63.Hear - Heard - Heard - A auzi

    Do you hear what I hear? - Auzi ce aud eu?
    I heard Mary has a little lamb - Am auzit ca Mary are un mielut.
    I won't hear of it! - Nici nu vreau sa aud!
    Please, hear me out - Te rog asculta si ce am eu de spus!


    536. 64.Hide - Hid - Hidden - A (se) ascunde

    The rabbit was hiding from the fox - Iepurele era ascuns de vulpe
    Outlaws hid in dark forests - Haiducii se ascundeau in paduri intunecate


    537. 65.Hit - Hit - Hit - A (se) lovi

    He hit the table with his fist - A lovit cu pumnul in masa
    I hit my thumb when hammering a nail - M-am lovit la degul mare pe cand bateam un cui.
    The bullet hit the target - Glontul a lovit tinta
    The company was hit hard by the recession - Firma a fost greu lovita de recesiune.


    538. 66.Hold - Held - Held - A (se) tine

    He held the book on his knees - Tinea cartea pe genunchi
    He held on to the handrail - S-a tinut de balustrada
    He held his breath - Si-a tinut respiratia
    Let's see what the future holds. - Sa vedem ce ne rezerva viitorul
    He held his tongue - Si-a tinut limba


    539. 67.Hurt - Hurt - Hurt - A durea, a se lovi

    My head/stomach/arm/tooth etc hurts - Ma doare capul/stomacul/bratul/dintele etc
    His words hurt - Cuvintele lui m-au durut
    It never hurts to be polite - Niciodata nu strica sa fii politicos.


    540. 68.Keep - Kept - Kept - A tine, a pastra

    He kept coming back into the store - Se tot intorcea in magazin.
    She keeps parrots - Ea creste papagali
    Keep the children quiet. - Fa-i pe copii sa taca.
    Keep safe on the road - Stai (pastreaza-te) in siguranta pe drum.
    Can you keep a secret? - Poti sa tii un secret?
    This project will keep him busy - Acest proiect il va tine ocupat
    I keep records of all spendings - Tin evidente pentru toate cheltuielile.
    Keep your voice down - Vorbeste incet.
    Keep up the good work - Continua munca cea buna.
    He keeps to himself - E retras.


    541. 69.Kneel - Knelt/Kneeled - Knelt/Kneeled - A ingenunchea

    He kneeled beside his sick dog - A ingenuncheat langa cainele sau bolnav.


    542. 70.Knit - Knit/Knitted - Knit/Knitted

    His grandmother would knit beautiful sweaters. - Bunica lui impletea pulovere frumoase.


    543. 71.Know - Knew - Known - A sti, a cunoaste.

    He knows many poems - El stie multe poezii.
    I know you - Te cunosc.
    I have known him for a long time. - Il cunosc de multa vreme
    You never know what might happen - Niciodata nu stii ce s-ar putea intampla.


    544. 72.Lay - Laid - Laid - A pune

    He wanted to lay down and rest - Vroia sa se intinda ca sa se odihneasca.
    He laid the table - A pus masa
    He laid the bedspread upon the bed - A pus cuvertura pe pat.
    He laid thick coats of paint. - A dat straturi groase de vopsea.
    If he lays a finger on my dog I will sue - Daca face vreun rau cainelui meu il dau in judecata.
    My hen lays big eggs. - Gaina mea face oua mari.


    545. 73.Lead - Led - Led - A conduce

    He led his army to victory - Si-a condus armata la victorie.
    The trail led them to the famous cave - Drumul i-a condus la celebra pestera.
    He led the way when the children crossed the street. - El i-a condus (a stat in fata lor) cand copiii au traversat strada
    He leads an interesting life - El duce o viata interesanta


    546. 74.Lean - Leant/Leaned - Leant/Leaned - A se inclina, a se sprijini

    The leaning tower of Pisa started to be built in 1172. - Turnul inclinat din Pisa a inceput sa fie construit in 1172.
    He leans on me for help - Se sprijina de mine sa il ajut.
    He leaned against the wall in pain - S-a sprijinit de perete datorita durerii.


    547. 75.Leap - Leapt/Leaped - Leapt/Leaped - A sari (ca o lacusta si in sus)

    With the bull right behind him, the man leaped over the wall - Cu taurul in urma lui, barbatul a trecut peste zid dintr-o saritura
    He learns by leaps and bounds - Invata in salturi.
    He leaped at the chance to go to Tokyo - A actionat imediat pentru sansa de a merge la Tokyo


    548. 76.Learn - Learnt/Learned - Learnt/Learned - A invata, a afla

    I learned Chinese - Am invatat chinezeste
    He learned he was broke - A aflat ca nu mai are nici un ban


    549. 77.Leave - Left - Left - A pleca, a lasa

    He left in a hurry - A plecat in graba
    He left me a note - Mi-a lasat un bilet.
    Because he was late, he was left out of the game. - Deoarece a intarziat, a fost omis din meci.
    Do your best, leave the rest - Fa totul cat mai bine, lasa restul(alte framantari).
    Leave me alone! - Lasa-ma-n pace!
    The train leaves at 9. - Trenul pleaca la 9. Anne left Bill - Anne l-a parasit pe Bill.


    550. 78.Lend - Lent - Lent - A imprumuta

    He lent me a book - Mi-a imprumutat o carte
    We are building a house. Can you lend us a hand? - Construim o casa. Poti sa ne ajuti?


    551. 79.Let - Let - Let - A lasa

    He will let the parrot out of the cage - A lasat papagalul afara din cusca
    Let a be greater than b - Fie a mai mare ca b
    Let him in. - Lasa-l sa intre
    Let us pray - Sa ne rugam.
    I can't drive a car, let alone a bus - Nu pot sa conduc o masina, darmite un autobuz
    Don't let me down! - Nu ma dezamagi.


    552. 80.Lie - Lay - Lain - A sta culcat

    A nu se confunda cu to lie care inseamna a minti

    Saturday morning, I like to lie in bed - Sambata dimineata imi place sa stau culcat in pat.
    You left the book lying on the floor - Ai last cartea pe podea.
    Constanta lies on the Black Sea coast -Constanta se afla pe tarmul Marii Negre.
    Here lies Mihail Eminescu - Aici, se odihneste Eminescu
    If I lay low maybe the bear won't find me - Daca stau pitit poate ca ursul nu ma va gasi.
    I laid out a wonderful plan - Am conceput un plan grozav.


    553. 81.Light - Lit - Lit - A aprinde

    Light a fire! - Fa un foc!
    I lit the lamp - Am aptins lampa
    Her face lights up when she hears of her home town.
    Because of the drought the forest lit up - Datorita secetei padurea a luat foc.


    554. 82.Lose - Lost - Lost - A pierde

    I lost my wallet - Mi-am pierdut portofelul
    He got lost in the city - S-a ratacit in oras.
    He lost his job last week. - Si-a pierdut slujba saptamana trecuta.
    He loses his temper too easily - Isi pierde cumpatul prea usor.
    I must lose weight - Trebuie sa slabesc.


    555. 83.Make - Made - Made - A face, a produce

    The baby was making a lot of noise - Copilul mic facea mult zgomot.
    The carpenter made a table - Tamplarul a facut o masa
    He made a mistake in these calculations. - A facut o greseala in aceste calcule
    I'm making lunch - Pregatesc pranzul
    He made the bed - A facut patul
    He made a phone call - A dat un telefon
    He barely made it - A ajuns in ultima clipa.
    2 and 4 make 6 - 2 si cu 4 fac 6.
    He made up with his friend - S-a impacat cu prietenul sau.
    He made off with the money - A plecat cu banii.


    556. 84.Mean - Meant - Meant - A insemna

    What do you mean? - Ce vrei sa spui?
    He didn't mean it - N-a vorbit serios (N-a vrut sa te jigneasca).
    What does this word mean? - Ce inseamna acest cuvant?
    How do you mean to find him? - Cum ai de gand sa-l gasesti.
    This means war! - Acest lucru inseamna razboi! (adica acest lucru m-a suparat foarte tare)
    Your support means a lot to me - Sprijinul tau are mare importanta pentru mine.


    557. 85.Meet - Met - Met - A (se) intalni

    Lets meet at 8 - Hai sa ne intalnim la 8.
    He did not meet all the required conditions - El nu indeplinea toate conditiile cerute.
    Our project met the committee's approval. - Proiectul nostru a primit (a intalnit) aprobarea comitetului.
    The horizon is an illusion. Land never meets sky. - Orizontul e o iluzie. Pamantul nu intalneste cerul niciodata


    558. 86.Melt - Melted - Molten/Melted - A (se) topi

    Dupa cum se vede, numai Molten e o forma neregulata

    The snowman melted. - Omul de zapada s-a topit.
    Molten lava - lava topita
    Molten iron - fier topit
    etc


    559. 87.Mistake - Mistook - Mistaken - A lua ceva drept altceva

    A nu confunda cu substantivul mistake.
    A mistake inseamna o greseala
    Insa a gresi = to make a mistake

    Se foloseste cu for

    Oh I'm sorry. I mistook you for somebody else - O, iarta-ma te-am luat drept altcineva
    I mistook him for a beggar - Am crezut ca e cersetor


    560. 88.Mow - Mowed - Mown - A tunde iarba

    I have to mow the lawn - Trebuie sa tund gazonul


    561. 89.Pay - Paid - Paid - A plati

    Wait till I go pay - Asteapta pana ma duc sa platesc.
    I paid a lot for the car. - Am dat mult pe masina
    It pays good interest. - Da dobanda buna.
    It pays to work hard - Da rezultate munca grea.
    Can you pay off your debts? - Poti sa iti platesti datoriile?


    562. 90.Prove - Proved - Proven/Proved - A (se) dovedi, a demonstra

    Forma proved se foloseste ca verb, forma proven ca adjectiv.

    I have proved this, so now it is a proven fact - Am dovedit aceasta asa ca acum e un fapt dovedit
    The party proved to be a succes - Petrecerea s-a dovedit a fi de succes.
    I proved this theorem - Am demonstrat aceasta teorema


    563. 91.Put - Put - Put - A pune

    Put that book back where it belongs - Pune cartea inapoi unde-i e locul
    I have to put my coat on - Trebuie sa pun haina pe mine.
    Can I put(sau ask) a question? - Pot sa pun o intrebare?
    ' Bluntly put, my answer is NO - Pe scurt (pus scurt) raspunsul meu e nu.
    Stop putting this off! - Nu mai amana!
    Put out that fire first, it's dangerous - Intai stinge focul acela, e periculos.
    I am finished putting up with him! - Am terminat sa il mai rabd!


    564. 92.Quit - Quit - Quit - A-si da demisia, a renunta

    I quit my job - Mi-am dat demisia
    I quit smoking - Am renuntat la fumat.


    565. 93.Read - Read - Read - A citi

    I learned to read at 5 - Am invatat sa citesc la 5 ani.
    You read my mind - Mi-ai citit gandurile
    I wouldn't read to much into that - Eu n-as interpreta asta ca insemnand prea mult.
    The ammeter reads 10 amps - Ampermetrul indica 10 amperi.
    Read out the rules - Citeste cu voce tare regulile
    I need to read up on my history - Trebuie sa-mi improspatez cunostintele de istorie.


    566. 94.Rid - Rid/Ridded - Rid/Ridded - A scapa de

    The candidate promised to rid the city of stray dogs. - Candidatul a promis sa scape cainele de caini vagabonzi.
    He's rid of his debts - A scapat de datorii.


    567. 95.Ride - Rode - Ridden - A calari, a merge cu un mijloc de transport

    He rode away into the sunset - A calarit pierzandu-se in lumina apusului de soare.
    She rides a tan horse - Ea calareste un cal bej.
    He rides the bus to work - Merge cu autobuzul la serviciu.
    She loves riding a bike - Ei ii place sa mearga pe bicicleta.


    568. 96.Ring - Rang - Rung - A suna

    Ring me up! - Suna-ma!
    What he says rings true - Ce spune el suna adevarat.
    The doorbell is ringing - E cineva la usa (Soneria suna)
    The classroom rang with laughter - Clasa a rasunat de rasete


    569. 97.Rise - Rose - Risen - A se ridica

    To rise e numai a se ridica
    To raise (verb regulat) e a ridica

    The sun rises in the east - Soarele se ridica in est.
    Hot air balloons were rising in the sky during the festivities - Baloanele cu aer cald se ridicau pe cer in timpul festivitatilor.
    Inflation causes prices to rise - Inflatia face ca preturile sa creasca.
    The preacher's voice rose till it sounded like thunder - Vocea predicatorului a crescut pana a devenit ca un tunet.
    I saw a thin column of smoke rising in the distance - Am vazut o coloana subtire de fum ridicandu-se in departare.
    He rose from his seat with difficulty - S-a sculat de pe scaun cu dificultate.
    The city of Warsaw rose from the ashes after WW2 - Orasul Varsovia s-a ridicat din cenusa dupa razboi.


    570. 98.Run - Ran - Run - A alerga, a merge (despre aparate), a conduce, a candida

    He ran the whole marathon - A alergat intreg maratonul
    He wants to run for president - Vrea sa candideze la presedentie.
    The TV runs all day - Televizorul sta aprins toata ziua.
    The rehearsal ran from 3pm to 8pm. - Repetitia a tinut de la 3 la 8 dupa masa.
    The scientist was running a six month experiment
    - Savantul desfasura un experiment cu durata de sase luni.
    It seems you've run out of luck, we have no more umbrellas - Se pare ca te-a lasat norocul, nu mai avem umbrele.


    571. 99.Saw - Sawed - Sawn/Sawed - A taia cu fierastraul

    I always saw off the Christmas tree branches before getting rid of it - Totdeauna tai ramurile la brad inainte sa ma descotorosesc de el.


    572. 100. Say - Said - Said - A spune

    Say something! - Zi ceva!
    "I made a mistake!" "I'll say" - "Am gresit!" "Si inca cum"
    Let's say it's so - Sa spunem ca asa e.
    He said goodye and rode off. - Si-a luat ramas bun si a plecat pe cal.


    573. 101.See - Saw - Seen - A vedea, a intelege

    I see an eagle in the sky - Vad un vultur pe cer
    I see what your saying. - Inteleg ce spui.
    I see her as the leader - O vad pe ea in postul de conducator
    Please see what they want - Te rog vezi ce vor.
    He is seeing somebody - Se vede cu cineva
    The doctor will see you now - Poti intra in cabinetul doctorului.
    See that they do it right - Vezi sa faca treaba bine.
    He had to see the ruins for himself - A trebuit sa vada ruinele cu ochii lui.
    Please see the guests to the door - Te rog condu-i pe musafiri.


    574. 102.Seek - Sought - Sought - A cauta

    I'll go seek help - Ma duc sa caut ajutor
    He is seeking employment - Cauta o slujba.


    575. 103.Sell - Sold - Sold - A (se) vinde

    I want to sell the house - Vreau sa vand casa
    Apples don't sell so well anymore - Merele nu se mai vand asa de bine.
    He was sold on the idea of a rooftop garden - I-a placut ideea unei gradini pe acoperis.


    576. 104.Send - Sent - Sent - A trimite

    He sent me a letter - Mi-a trimis o scrisoare
    They sent the children to boarding school - Au trimis copiii la internat
    The football player sent the ball out of the field - Jucatorul de fotbal a trimis mingea in afara terenului.
    I was sent for, wasn't I? - Am fost chemat(a), nu?


    577. 105.Set - Set - Set - A aseza, a aranja

    He set the statuette on the table - A pus statueta pe masa
    He set the house on fire - A dat foc la casa
    I set the alarm clock at 8 - Am pus ceasul sa sune la 8
    He must set the table by 6 - Trebuie sa puna masa pana in ora 6.
    It's all set - Totu-i aranjat.
    You must set a good example for your little sister - Trebuie sa fii un model pentru sora ta mai mica.
    The sun sets at 8. - Soarele apune la 8.
    Set apart the clothes you will need - Aseaza deoparte hainele de care vei avea nevoie.
    Let me set forth my ideas - Lasa-ma sa-ti prezint ideile mele.
    His smoking set off the fire detector - Fumatul lui a pornit detectorul de incendii.
    I set up shop in town - Mi-am ridicat un magazin in oras.


    578. 106.Sew - Sewed - Sewn/Sewed - A coase

    He is sewing the hem of his pants - El isi coase tivul la pantaloni.


    579. 107.Shake - Shook - Shaken - A tremura, a scutura

    To shiver with cold - A tremura de frig.

    The hunter started shaking when he saw the lion. - Vanatorul a inceput sa tremure cand a vazut leul.
    The night the earth shook - Noaptea cand pamantul s-a zguduit.
    To shake hands - A da mana.
    She shook the tambourine and the music played - Ea scutura tamburina iar muzica rasuna.
    We shook hands on it - Ne-am inteles


    580. 108.Shave - Shaved - Shaven/Shaved - A (se) rade

    He shaved his mustache this morning - Si-a ras mustata in dimineata asta.
    He shaved the wood carefully - A dat cu atentie lemnul la rindea.


    581. 109.Shed - Shed - Shed - A pierde (par, kilograme, lacrimi etc)

    A pierde ceva e to lose

    He shed tears in silence - Plangea in liniste
    What you said shed some light on this mystery. - Ceea ce mi-ai spus a aruncat putina lumina asupra acestui mister.
    The oaktree has shed its leaves. - Stejarul s-a lepadat de frunze.
    My dog's hair is shedding - Cainelui meu ii cade par din blana.


    582. 110.Shine - Shone - Shone - A straluci

    Moonlight shone on the forest path - Lumina lunii stralucea pe cararea din padure
    The happiness that shone in his eyes said it all - Bucuria care-i stralucea in ochi era graitoare.


    583. 111.Shoe - Shod - Shod - A (se) incalta

    Uzual pentru a se incalta e to put on one's shoes
    Astazi se foloseste aproape numai cand vorbim de cai.

    Who will shoe your pretty little feet? - Cine-ti va incalta piciorusele?
    He shoes horses - E potcovar

    584. 112.Shoot - Shot - Shot - A impusca

    I shot the sheriff - L-am impuscat pe serif.
    Peter shot an angry look at him - Peter i-a aruncat o privire suparata.
    Water shot out of the pipe - A tasnit apa din teava.
    Pain shot through my arm - O durere m-a sagetat in brat


    585. 113.Show - Showed - Shown - A arata

    He showed me his stamp collection - Mi-a aratat colectia lui de timbre.
    He showed them to the door. - I-a condus la usa.
    What's showing at the movies this week? - Ce film ruleaza saptamana asta?
    You didn't show up for rehearsal. - Nu ai venit la repetitii.


    586. 114.Shrink - Shrank - Shrunk - A se micsora

    People shrink with age - Cu varsta, oamenii scad in inaltime
    I want to shrink this photo, and keep it in my purse - Vreau sa micsorez aceasta fotografie si sa o tin in poseta.
    The lake shrank because of the draught - Lacul s-a micsorat datorita secetei.


    587. 115.Shut - Shut - Shut - A inchide

    Shut up! - Taci din gura!
    Please, shut the door! - Te rog, inchide usa!
    The electricity is shut off. - Curentul e oprit.
    The health inspectors shut down the store - Inspectorii de sanatate au inchis magazinul
    They shut off the radioactive plant - Au inchis (si au izolat) uzina radioactiva.


    588. 116.Sing - Sang - Sung - A canta

    She sings in the choir - Ea canta in cor
    Let's sing a song - Hai sa cantam un cantec
    Happy birds are singing in the sky - Pasari fericite canta in cer.


    589. 117.Sink - Sank - Sunk - A (se) scufunda

    The battleship has been sunk! - Nava de razboi a fost scufundata!
    His heart sank at the news - I s-a prabusit inima la aflarea vestii.
    His words finally sank in - Cuvintele lui au capatat in sfarsit inteles.
    Sink or swim - Sau inoti sau te scufunzi.


    590. 118.Sit - Sat - Sat - A sta jos

    Don't sit on the floor, pull up a chair. - Nu sta pe jos, trage-ti un scaun.
    My parrot sits on my shoulder - Papagalul imi sta pe umar
    Their house sits in a green valley - Casa lor se afla intr-o vale verde.
    Little Miss Muffet sat on a tuffet - Mica Miss Muffet sta pe un delusor
    That doesn't sit well with me - Nu imi cade bine asta
    That stadium sits 30,000 people - Stadionul acela are 30.000 de locuri.
    Sit still! - Stai locului!


    591. 119.Slay - Slew - Slain - A ucide

    Ceasar was slain by his political adversaries - Cezar a fost ucis de adversarii sai politici


    592. 120.Sleep - Slept - Slept - A dormi

    I usually sleep until seven - Deobicei dorm pana la 7.
    I slept like a log - Am dormit bustean.


    593. 121.Slide - Slid - Slid - A aluneca

    Pentru a aluneca din greseala e mai uzual to slip
    A slide = Un tobogan

    Children on a sled slid past - Copiii pe sanie au trecut in zbor
    He slid on the ice and broke his arm. - A alunecat pe gheata si si-a rupt mana
    Let it slide! - Las-o moarta! Treaca!
    He slid the stolen watch into his pocket - Si-a bagat ceasul furat in buzunar.


    594. 122.Slit - Slit - Slit - A taia cu o lama (nu cu un foarfece)

    Cuvantul uzual pentru a taia e to cut

    He got life in prison for slitting his neighbor's throat - A primit inchisoare pe viata pentru ca a taiat gatul vecinului sau.


    595. 123.Smell - Smelt/Smelled - Smelt/Smelled - A mirosi

    We must all stop sometimes and smell the roses - Toti trebuie sa ne oprim cateodata si sa mirosim trandafirii.
    Throw away this cheese, it smells. - Arunca branza asta, miroase.


    596. 124.Speak - Spoke - Spoken - A vorbi

    She spoke at the gathering - A vorbit la adunare
    They are not on speaking terms - Nu isi vorbesc
    I speak in their name - Vorbesc in numele lor
    Do you speak English? - Vorbesti engleza?
    Speak out, don't be afraid! - Vorbeste cu curaj, nu-ti fie frica!
    Speak up, we can't hear you - Vorbeste mai tare, nu te-auzim!
    Speaking of pets, how's Fifi? - Apropo de animale de companie, Fifi ce mai face?


    597. 125.Speed - Sped/Speeded - Sped/Speeded - A merge cu viteza, a accelera

    Speed up! Step on it! - Grabeste-te! Calca acceleratia!
    Cars sped by - Masinile treceau in viteza


    598. 126.Spell - Spelt/Spelled - Spelt/Spelled - A spune un cuvant pe litere

    Spell out your name, please - Spune-ti numele pe litere te rog.
    This could spell the end of the European Union - Acest lucru ar putea marca sfarsitul Uniunii Europene.


    599. 127.Spend - Spent - Spent - A cheltui

    You spend to much! - Cheltuiesti prea mult!
    How much time do you spend with your family? - Cat timp petreci cu familia?
    Where will you spend your vacation? - Unde iti vei petrece vacanta?


    600. 128.Spill - Spilt/Spilled - Spilt/Spilled - A varsa

    I spilled some juice on my blouse. - Mi-am varsat niste suc pe bluza.
    The beads spilt onto the floor - Margelele s-au imprastiat pe podea.


    601. 129.Spin - Span/Spun - Spun - A se invarti (ca un titirez), a toarce

    My great grandmother could spin very well. We still have her spinning wheel - Strabunica mea torcea foarte bine. Inca avem masina ei de tors.
    We play football with our fingers, by spinning coins. - Jucam fotbal cu degetele, invartind monezi.
    She spins wonderful stories - Ea spune niste povesti minunate.
    My head is spinning - Ma simt ametit (mi se invarte capul)


    602. 130.Spit - Spat/Spit - Spat/Spit - A scuipa

    Stop spitting out the medicine! - Nu mai scuipa medicamentele!
    He is constantly spitting out insults - El tot timpul arunca (scuipa) insulte.


    603. 131.Split - Split - Split - A taia, a imparti

    Will you please split the watermelon in two? - Vrei te rog sa tai pepenele in doua?
    I will split the cake equally - Voi imparti tortul in mod egal.


    604. 132.Spoil - Spoilt/Spoiled - Spoilt/Spoiled - A alinta, a se strica

    You spoil that child too much! - Alinti copilul prea mult.
    The milk has spoilt - Laptele s-a stricat


    605. 133.Spread - Spread - Spread - A (se) intinde

    Would you like to spread butter on your toast? - Ti-ar place sa intinzi unt pe painea prajita?
    Please spread out the tablecloth - Te rog intinde fata de masa.
    The news spread fast - Vestea s-a raspandit repede.
    Take a picture when the eagle spreads its wings. - Fa o poza cand vulturul isi intinde aripile.


    606. 134.Spring - Sprang - Sprung - A sari (din ghemuit, ca un arc)

    The tiger sprang from the bushes - Tigrul a sarit din tufisuri.
    Small stores are springing up everywhere - Magazine mici apar (ca din senin) peste tot.
    She has a spring to her step lately - Se simte o vioiciune deosebita (o bucurie) in mersul ei in ultima vreme.
    An idea sprang into my mind. - Mi-a venit o idee in minte.


    607. 135.Stand - Stood - Stood - A sta in picioare

    Stand still! - Nu te misca!
    All the seats on the bus were taken, so I stood the whole time. - Toate locurile din autobuz erau luate asa ca am stat in picioare tot timpul.
    The old house is still standing - Vechea casa inca mai exista
    Does the agreement still stand? - Mai e valabila intelegerea?
    His paintings stood the test of time - Picturile lui au rezistat trecerii timpului, sunt inca celebre.
    I can't stand math - Nu suport matematica.
    They stood by me in tough times - Ei m-au sustinut in vremuri grele.
    I stand for Women's Rights - Sustin drepturile femeilor.
    The republic for which it stands - Republica pe care o reprezinta.
    A flamingo stands on one leg - Un flamingo sta intr-un picior.
    Please stand up! - Va rog sculati-va in picioare.


    608. 136.Steal - Stole - Stolen - A fura

    He stole my wallet - Mi-a furat portofelul!
    He stole the show - A fost de departe cel mai bun numar din spectacol.
    He stole a glance - S-a uitat pe furis


    609. 137.Stick - Stuck - Stuck - A lipi, a infige

    He stuck a pin into the pin cushion - A infipt un bold in perna de ace.
    I am stuck in this boring job - Sunt prins in aceasta slujba plicticoasa.
    The door is stuck - Usa e intepenita.
    Let's stick together! - Hai sa ramanem uniti!
    I will stick a note on his door - Ii voi lasa un biletel la usa.


    610. 138.Sting - Stung - Stung - A intepa

    I once was stung by a bee - Am fost odata muscat de o viespe.
    The smoke made my eyes sting - Fumul facea sa ma intepe ochii.
    A stinging remark - O remarca usturatoare.


    611. 139.Stink - Stank - Stunk - A mirosi urat

    Flowers in vases can end up stinking - Florile din vaze pot in cele din urma sa puta.
    This deal stinks - Aceasta intelegere imi displace profund (pute)


    612. 140.Stride - Strode/Strided - Stridden - A merge cu pasi lungi si vigurosi

    A merge se zice to walk

    He was striding to the airport terminal - Mergea la termnalul aeroportului.


    613. 141.Strike - Struck - Struck/Stricken - A lovi

    The bullet struck him in the arm - Glontul l-a lovit in brat
    He strikes me as a kind person - Mi se pare o persoana de treaba
    The clock struck midnight - Ceasul a batut miezul noptii.
    To strike a bell - A bate clopotul
    The speaker struck a chord in many. - Vorbitorul a atins o coarda sensibila in multi ascultatori.
    In the Middle Ages many were struck down by the plague. - In Evul Mediu multi erau loviti de ciuma.


    614. 142.String - Strung - Strung - A insira

    String e fir. Multe actiuni legate de fire se traduc prin to string.

    I have to string my guitar - Trebuie sa-mi acordez chitara
    They strung an electrical wire across the street. - Au intins un cablu electric de-a lungul drumului.
    I have to string these beads back. - Trebuie sa pun margelele acestea inapoi pe sforicica.


    615. 143.Strive - Strove - Striven - A se zbate (in sens pozitiv), a depune un mare efort

    I strive to be the best teacher - Ma lupt sa fiu cea mai buna profesor.
    Strive to reach the stars - Zbate-te sa ajungi la stele.


    616. 144.Swear - Swore - Sworn - A jura, a injura

    I swear allegiance to my country, Romania. - Jur credinta tarii mele, Romania
    I swear I didn't eat the cake - Jur ca n-am mancat tortul
    He was swearing and cursing everyone around - Ii injura si ii blestema pe toti cei din jur.
    Don't swear at him! - Nu il mai injura!


    617. 145.Sweat - Sweat/Sweated - Sweat/Sweated - A transpira

    I sweat bullets when I work out - Transpir din greu (gloante) cand ma antrenez.


    618. 146.Sweep - Swept/Sweeped - Swept/Sweeped - A matura

    Let me sweep the kitchen - Lasa-ma sa matur in bucatarie
    The flood waters swept away everything in their path.- Inundatia a maturat totul din calea ei.
    The hills sweep down to the sea. - Dealurile coboara pana la mare.


    619. 147.Swell - Swelled - Swollen - A se umfla

    The river is swelling - Raul se umfla
    Your face is swollen - Ai fata umflata


    620. 148.Swim - Swam - Swum - A inota

    I swam 50 laps - Am inotat 50 de lungimi de bazin.
    I dream of swimming in money someday - Visez ca intr-o zi sa inot in bani


    621. 149.Swing - Swung - Swung - A (se) legana

    The monkey was swinging from its tail - Maimuta se legana atarnata de coada.
    He doesn't swing his arms when walking - Nu isi leagana bratele cand merge.
    He came swinging down the road, whistling a tune - Venea vesel pe drum fluierandu o melodie


    622. 150.Take - Took - Taken - A lua

    Did you take your medicine today? - Ti-ai luat azi doctoriile?
    Take a bus to school - Du-te cu autobuzul la scoala
    His reactions always take me by surprise - Reactiile lui totdeauna ma iau prin surprindere.
    He took her hand in marriage - El s-a insurat cu ea. (i-a luat mana in casatorie)
    He took a seat - A luat loc
    Take a picture - Fa o poza
    Take your time - Nu te grabi
    Take comfort in your daughter - Gaseste-ti consolarea in fata ta.
    Take a left turn and you are there - Ia-o la stanga si ai ajuns.
    You should take your temperature - Ar trebui sa-ti iei temperatura
    Take a walk - Du-te la plimbare
    Take a break - Fa o pauza.
    Take down the curtains - Da jos perdelele
    Take off your coat - Scoate-ti haina
    Can you please take out this splinter? - Poti te rog sa-mi scoti aceasta aschie?
    He took off - A plecat in graba
    As I take it, he's not coming home - Dupa cate inteleg eu, el nu va veni acasa.


    623. 151.Teach - Taught - Taught - A invata pe altii

    Can you teach me English? - Ma poti invata engleza?
    He taught History all his life. - Toata viata el a predat istoria.


    624. 152.Tear - Tore - Torn - A rupe

    The nail tore a hole in my sock - Cuiul mi-a facut o gaura in ciorap
    After reading that article he tore the newspaper to pieces - Dupa ce a citit articlul a rupt ziarul in bucati
    They will tear down this building - Vor demola aceasta cladire.
    A country torn by rival political parties - O tara sfasiata de partide politice rivale.
    The dog tore into the food - Cainele s-a repezit la mancare

    625. 153.Tell - Told - Told - A spune (cu sensul de a povesti)

    Tell us a story! - Spune-ne o poveste!
    Tell me what happened - Spune-mi ce s-a intamplat
    Tell me about the trip - Povesteste-mi despre excursie.
    I'll tell you a secret - Iti spun un secret
    Could you tell if he was lying? - Iti dadeai seama daca minte?
    I can't tell who's coming, it's too dark. - Nu-mi dau seama cine vine, e prea intuneric.


    626. 154.Think - Thought - Thought - A gandi, a crede

    I thought about what you said - M-am gandit la ce ai spus.
    I think you are right - Cred ca ai dreptate
    He thinks he is smart. - Se crede destept.
    What do you think your doing? - Ce faci? (Ce iti inchipui ca faci?) - Ce te-a apucat?
    I am thinking about you - Ma gandesc la tine.


    627. 155.Thrive - Throve/Thrived - Thriven/Thrived - A merge infloritor, a prospera

    That plant thrives in the shade - Plantei aceea ii merge infloritor la umbra.
    My business is thriving - Afacerii mele ii merge infloritor


    628. 156.Throw - Threw - Thrown - A arunca

    My dog wanted me to throw the ball - Catelul meu vroia sa arunc mingea.
    He threw me a glance - Mi-a aruncat o privire
    He threw away the left-overs. - A aruncat mancarea ramasa
    He threw out the garbage - A dus gunoiul (l-a scos din casa)
    He threw up - A vomitat


    629. 157.Thrust - Thrust - Thrust - A vari

    He thrust his hands into his pockets - Si-a varat mainile in buzunar.
    He thrut his sword into the enemy - Si-a varat sabia in dusman


    630. 158.Tread - Trod - Trodden - A merge cu pasi grei peste ceva

    He tread through the forest with heavy feet and a heavy heart - Mergea prin padure cu picioare grele si cu inima la fel.


    631. 159.Understand - Understood - Understood - A intelege

    I understand your point of view - Iti inteleg punctul de vedere
    I don't uderstand this theorem - Nu inteleg aceasta teorema
    I understand this is unexpected. - Inteleg ca e ceva neasteptat


    632. 160.Upset - Upset - Upset - A necaji, a supara, a rasturna

    He upset the vase and it broke - A rasturnat vaza care s-a spart.
    Stop upsetting your brother - Nu-l mai necaji pe fratele tau
    Why is he so upset? - De ce e el atat de suparat?


    633. 161.Wake - Woke - Woken - A trezi

    Wake me up in an hour - Scoala-ma peste-un ceas
    That moment was for me a wake up call - Momentul acela a fost pentru mine unul de trezire.
    Romanian, wake up from the sleep of death - Desteapta-te romane din somnul cel de moarte


    634. 162.Wear - Wore - Worn - A purta

    On her head she wore a yellow ribbon - Purta pe cap o funda galbena
    Wear a coat it's freezing outside - Poarta o haina e foarte frig afara
    He wears glasses - El poarta ochelari
    I will wait until the alcohol has worn off - Am sa astept pana se duce efectul alcoolului.
    Children can wear you out - Copiii te pot epuiza
    My car is so worn down I am afraid to drive it sometimes - Masina mea e atat de uzata incat uneori mie frica sa o conduc


    635. 163.Weave - Wove - Woven - A tese, a impleti

    A impleti par - to plait hair.

    She weaves rugs - Ea tese covoare
    He weaves baskets - El impleteste cosuri
    The writer wove his memories into the plot - Scriitorul a intercalat amintirile proprii in poveste


    636. 164.Wed - Wed/Wedded - Wed/Wedded - A (se) casatori

    I wed when I was 20. - M-am casatorit la 20 de ani.
    I wed David - M-am casatorit cu David.
    We need a minister to wed us. - Ne trebuie un preot care sa ne casatoreasca.


    637. 165.Weep - Wept - Wept - A plange amar

    They wept when they remembered all their freinds killed in the war - Au plans cand si-au amintit de toti prietenii lor morti in razboi.


    638. 166.Wet - Wet/Wetted - Wet/Wetted - A umezi

    Wet the sponge, please. - Umezeste te rog buretele
    He still wets the bed at night, although he is 9 - Inca mai uda noaptea patul desi are noua ani.


    639. 167.Win - Won - Won - A castiga

    She won the competition - A castigat concursul.
    Her speech won over many listners - Discursul ei a castigat pe multi ascultatori.


    640. 168.Wind - Wound - Wound - A (se) incolaci

    I have to wind my watch - Trebuie sa imi intorc ceasul.
    Where does this path that winds up the mountain take me? - Unde ma duce aceasta carare ce serpuieste in sus pe munte?
    You'll wind up in a bear's cave. - Ai sa nimeresti intr-o pestera de urs.


    641. 169.Wring - Wrung - Wrung - A stoarce

    A nu se confunda cu to ring (care se citeste la fel) - a suna.

    He was wringing his hands in dispair - El isi frangea mainile de disperare
    The washing machine will wring out the water. - Maina de spalat va stoarce apa.


    642. 170.Write - Wrote - Written - A scrie

    He writes poems - El scrie poezii.
    Let me write you a check - Sa-ti completez un cec.
    He wrote to us that he would come visit - Ne-a scris ca va veni sa ne viziteze
    Write down what I'm about to tell you - Scrie ce am de gand sa-ti spun.


    643. Verbe care au aceeasi radacina deobicei au si aceleasi forme neregulate.

    put : input : output
    sau
    cast : forecast : broadcast
    sau chiar
    stand : understand


    7.SUBSTANTIV, ADJECTIV, VERB - SCHIMBAREA CATEGORIEI


    644. Multe verbe sunt si substantive.
    Adica infinitivul scurt(fara to) al verbului e si ubstantiv.
    De exemplu:

    (to) back - a sprijini, spate
    (to) cook - a gati, bucatar
    (to) cut - a taia, taietura
    (to) drink - a bea/bautura
    (to) fall - a cadea, cazatura<
    (to) fish - a pescui, peste
    (to) hate - a uri, ura
    (to) heat - a incalzi, caldura
    (to) help - a ajuta, ajutor
    (to) laugh a rade, ras
    (to) search a cauta, o expeditie de cautare
    (to) talk a vorbi, cuvantare
    (to) walk a merge, plimbare
    (to) work a munci, munca



    645. Verbele de mai sus sunt cateva verbe care sunt identice ca substantive. Exista si verbe care se scriu la fel dar ca substantive au accentul altfel decat la verbe.

    To export - a exporta, export
    To record - a inregistra, inregistrare
    To present - a prezenta, cadou


    646. Terminatia - ment
    Substantive abstracte provenite din verbe

    to excite - a entuziasma
    excitment - entuziasm
    to enjoy - a se bucura enjoyment - bucurie


    647. Terminatia - tion sau - ion
    Substantive provenite din verbe

    To comunicate - A comunica
    Communication - Comunicare

    To pollute - A polua
    Pollution - Poluare

    To admit - A admite, a recunoaste
    Admission - Recunoastere


    648. Terminatia - er, - or sau - ist
    Substantive provenite din verbe si care reprezinta meserii:

    to teach - a invata pe altii
    teacher - invatator, profesor

    to run - a alerga
    runner - alergator

    to act - a juca in piese
    actor - actor

    to translate - a traduce
    translator - traducator

    to economize - a economisi
    economist - economist


    649. Terminatiile - er, - ee desemneaza substantive care contrasteaza unul cu celalalt

    employer - angajator
    employee - angajat


    650. Terminatia - ing
    Gerunziile verbelor pot fi folosite ca substantive.

    To sleep - a dormi
    Sleeping bag - Sac de dormit - adjectiv
    Sleeping is vital for our health - Dormitul e vital pebntru sanatatea noastra - substantiv.
    Obs: si sleep is vital for our health era corect.

    Learning can be tiresome - Invatatul poate fi obositor.
    Eating all day is dangerous - Mancatul toata ziua e periculos
    Singing is fun - Cantatul e distractiv.


    651. Terminatia - ist/ism
    Ca si in romaneste desemneaza oameni/ideologii

    marxist/marxism
    communist/communism
    terrorist/terrorism


    652. Terminatia - al
    Substantive provenite din verbe:

    Atentie! In romaneste acest mod de a construi substantive e automat:
    da - dare, veni - venire, alerga - alergare, pleca - plecare
    In engleza nu exista decat rar aceasta constructie cu - al
    Ea poate fi inlocuita de constructia cu: - ing
    Plecarea in vacanta a fost grea - Plecatul in vacanta a fost greu
    Leaving for vacation was hard

    Atentie! Multe adjective deasemeni au terminatia al

    arrival - sosire
    refusal - refuz
    denial - negare
    burial - ingropare


    653. Terminatia - ness
    Substantive abstracte provenite din adjective:

    Laziness - lene
    Hapiness - fericire
    Sadness - tristete
    Kindness - bunatate
    Weakness - slasbiciune
    Darkness - intunecime


    654. Terminatia - hood
    Creeaza substantive abstracte provenite din alte substantive
    Mai ales termeni legati de familie (dar nu numai):

    motherhood - maternitate
    childhood - copilarie
    brotherhood - fratie
    dar si
    priesthood - preotie
    neighborhood - vecibnatate


    655. Terminatia - ship
    Substantive abstracte care desemneaza o relatie si care provin din alte substantive sau din adjective.

    friendship - prietenie
    membership - calitatea de a fi membru
    partnership - partenariat

    hardship - greutati
    hard - greu (adjectiv, adverb)


    656. Terminatia - ty:
    Substantive abstracte provenite din adjective:

    honesty - onestitate
    loyalty - loialitate
    priority - prioritate
    majority - majoritate


    657. Un adjectiv

    Poate proveni din:
    - un substantiv (day - daily - zilnic, fur - furry - cu blana)
    - un verb (fishing, melted)

    sau poate fi chiar el baza pentru formarea
    - unui alt adjectiv (red-reddish)
    - unui verb (red - redden; danger - endanger, tight - tighten)
    - unui substantiv (tall - tallness)


    658. Terminatia - al
    Adjective provenite din substantive:

    accidental
    brutal
    regional
    universal
    personal


    659. Terminatia - ly
    Adjective provenite din substantive
    Aceasta terminatie insa este tipica pentru adverbe nu pentru adjective.

    daily - zilnic
    friendly - prietenos
    monthly - lunar
    bodily - care tine de corp


    660. Terminatia - ful
    Adjective provenite din substantive
    Full of - plin de

    joyful - full of joy - cu fericire
    careful - full of care - grijuliu
    graceful - full of grace - gratios
    delightful - full of delight - incantator
    beautiful - full of beauty - frummoasa


    661. Terminatia - less
    Adjective provenite din substantive
    Less - fara

    homeless - fara locuinta
    a homeless beggar - un cersetor fara locuinta
    he is homeless - el e fara locuinta
    powerless - fara putere
    faithless - fara credinta
    meaningless - fara sens
    penniless - fara bani


    662. Cuvintele terminate in y schimba pe y in i inaintea sufixelor: ful, less, ous

    plentiful, penniless
    dar nu daca inaintea lui y este o vocala
    playful, joyful, joyless


    663. Terminatia - ary
    Adjective provenite din substantive
    Sunt legate de o insusire sau de un loc

    customary - conform obiceiului
    momentary - de moment, efemer

    Here, it is customary to take your shoes off in the house - Aici, este obiceiul de a te descalta in casa


    664. Terminatia - ic
    Adjective provenite din substantive

    athletic - atletic
    basic - fundamental
    historic - istoric


    665. Terminatia - ical
    Adjective provenite din substantive

    magic, magical - magic
    logical - logic
    historical - istoric


    666. historic si historical

    Diferenta este ca historic inseamna important, monumental pe cand historical inseamna legat de istorie


    667. Substantive pot fi adjective, adica pot descrie un alt substantiv.
    Ca orice adjectiv ele trebuie puse in fata substantivului la care se refera.
    De multe ori ele se folosesc in romaneste cu prepozItia de:

    cardboard box - cutie de carton
    marble statue - statuie de marmura
    battleship - nava de razboi


    1.Unele combinatii sunt consacrate
    classroom - sala de clasa
    apple juice - suc de mere
    cheese sandwich - sendvis de branza
    snowstorm - furtuna de zapada
    snowman - om de zapada
    tree branch - ramura de copac
    skyscraper - zgarietor de nori (zgarie nori)
    computer screen - monitor de calculator
    mountain bike - bicicleta de munte (montana)
    football - minge de picior (fotbal)
    paper airplane - avion de hartie

    Altele pot fi facute de vorbitor pentru a preciza despre care substantiv vorbeste:
    the forest river - raul de padure
    the emerald forest - padurea de smarald
    the office car - masina de birou
    a sarmale meal - o mancare de sarmale
    the Voronet painting - pictura de Voronet


    668. In putine cazuri aceste substantive devenite adjective pot fi cuvinte cu totul noi:

    ladybug - gargarita
    butterfly - fluture
    dragonfly - libelula
    pineapple - ananas
    eggplant - vanata

    669. Aceste substantive devenite adjective isi pierd caracteristicile substantivale si ca orice adjectiv in engleza nu accepta plural:

    house plant - planta de casa
    house plants - plante de casa.


    670. Terminatia - ish
    De multe ori are terminatia - esc in romaneste
    Poate fi folosita si la culori. Deobicei nu e folosit in sens pozitiv.
    childish - copilaresc - simplu, fara maturitate

    foolish - prostesc
    childish - copilaresc
    selfish - egoist
    bluish - albastrui


    671. Terminatia - like
    Inseamna asemeni Deobicei e folosit in sens pozitiv.
    childlike - ca un copil - inocent, dragut

    lifelike - in marime naturale, ca in viata
    ladylike - care e potrivit pentru o doamna
    godlike - asemeni lui Dumnezeu


    672. Terminatia - ous

    glamorous - incantator
    dangerous - periculos
    poisonous - otravitor


    673. Terminatia - y

    rainy - ploios
    a rainy day - o zi ploioasa
    funny - nostim
    sunny - insorit
    furry - cu blana


    674. Numeralele deasemeni pot actiona ca adjective
    In cazul acesta substantivul pierde pe s adica devine la singular.

    a 100 page document - un document de 100 de pagini
    a 20 day diet - un regim de 20 de zile
    a 10 foot ladder - o scara de 10 picioare


    675. Ca si in romaneste adjective pot fi formate de participiul unui verb

    lacul inghetat (de la a ingheta) - the frozen lake
    peretele zugravit - the painted wall
    merele cumparate - the bought apples
    varza umpluta - stuffed cabage


    676. Unele verbe au doua forme de participiu, de exemplu: shave are si shaved si shaven.
    Ca adjectiv se foloseste forma neregulata.

    He has shaved his beard. - El si-a ras barba (aici shaved e verb, descrie o actiune)
    He is clean shaven - El este complet ras. (shaven e adjectiv)


    677. Terminatia - ing:
    Adjective formate din gerunziul verbelor

    sleeping dog - caine care doarme
    sleeping bag - sac de dormit
    talking movies - filme care vorbesc
    (filmele sonore din epoca cinematografului mut)
    talking parrot - papagal vorbitor


    678. Terminatia - able:
    Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au terminatia abil

    agreeable - agreabil
    expandable - expandabil
    remarkable - remarcabil
    likable - placut


    679. Terminatia - ible:
    Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au terminatia ibil

    sensible - intelept (nu inseamna sensibil)
    flexible - flexibil
    accessible - accesibil


    680. Terminatia - ent:
    Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au tot terminatia ent

    excellent - excelent
    urgent - urgent
    different - diferit


    681. Terminatia - ant:
    Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au tot terminatia ant

    pleasant - placut
    reliant - dependent
    ignorant - ignorant
    vacant - vacant


    682. Terminatia - ive:
    Deobicei aceste adjectiv in romaneste au tot terminatia iv

    attractive - atractiv
    creative - creativ
    secretive - secretos
    informative - informativ


    8.ADVERBUL


    683. Adverbul este partea de vorbire care arata o caracteristica a unei actiuni, a unei stari sau a unei calitati
    El determina verbe, adjective sau alte adverbe.
    Un adverb trebuie sa raspunda la una din intrebarile : Cum? Cand? Unde?

    Ma duc degraba la gara. Cum ma duc? Degraba este adverb pe langa verbul a se duce.



    684. Adverbele care determina un adjectiv, stau totdeauna in fata adjectivului
    Astfel de adverbe sunt very - foarte, quite - destul de, absolutely - foarte etc
    Very poate sa fie si adjectiv cu intelesul de chiar
    This is the very example I need - Acesta este chiar exemplul de care am nevoie.

    A very big dog - Un caine foarte mare
    A very rainy day - O zi foarte ploioasa

    This is a very tall man - Acesta e un barbat foarte inalt
    This man is quite tall - Acest barbat e destul de inalt

    He's absolutely delighted - El e cu desavarsire incantat.

    quite de multe ori e folosit ca eufemism pentru very.
    A doua propozitie putand insemna si ca barbatul respectiv e foarte inalt.


    685. Adverbele englezesti se grupeaza in adverbe de mod, de loc, de timp de frecventa si de scop.

    Adverbele cateodata pot fi puse in multe locuri in propozitie, cateodata nu.
    Ele au trei locuri in propozitie unde e posibil sa-si aiba locul.
    - pozitia initiala (inaintea subiectului)
    - pozitia de mijloc (intre subiect si verb sau imediat inainte de verbul to be daca e cazul)
    - pozitia finala(la sfarsitul propozitiei)


    686. Adverbe de mod
    slowly - incet
    carefully - atent
    awfully - teribil

    A citit incet scrisoarea
    Toate urmatoarele formulari sunt corecte

    Slowly, he read the letter
    He slowly read the letter
    He read the letter slowly

    A deschis cu grija plicul
    Toate urmatoarele formulari sunt corecte

    Carefully, he opened the envelope
    He carefully opened the envelope
    He opened the envelope carefully

    El este teribil de trist - He is awfully sad


    687. Adverbe de loc
    here - aici
    there - acolo
    behind - in spate
    above - deasupra
    In general aceste adverbe se pun la sfarsit, mai rar se pun si inaintea subiectului.

    We met him here. - L-am intalnit aici
    We stayed there. - Am stat acolo

    In aceste doua cazuri, adverbele nu pot fi asezate in alta parte in propozitie.


    688. Adverbe de timp
    now - acum
    then - atunci
    yesterday - ieri
    In general aceste adverbe se pun la sfarsit, mai rar se pun si inaintea subiectului.

    Now listen to a story - Acum asculta o poveste
    Listen to the story now - Asculta povestea acum.

    He went fishing yesterday - S-a dus la pescuit ieri
    Yesterday he went fishing - Ieri s-a dus la pescuit.
    Constructia romaneasca - S-a dus ieri la pescuit - NU se poate respecta
    deci
    He went yesterday fishing e GRESIT.
    Aceasta propozitie da impresia ca yesterday e un adjectiv adica exista un mod de a pescui numit yesterday.


    689. Adverbe de frecventa
    always - totdeauna
    already - deja
    never - niciodata
    seldom - rareori
    usually - deobicei

    Daca verbul este to be si nu este un timp compus, adverbele de frecventa deobicei se pun dupa be.
    La timpurile compuse ele se intercaleaza.
    La verbele celelalte (exceptand modalele) aceste adverbe se pune inaintea verbului.
    In cazul modalelor ca si in cazul verbului to be adverbul de frecventa se pune dupa verb.

    I am usually on time - Deobicei ajung la timp.
    I have never seen this movie - Nu am vazut niciodata acest film.
    I often dream of him - De multe ori il visez.


    690.

    1. In propozitii afirmative locul adverbelor de frecventa depinde de verb

      • in cazul verbului a fi = to be, locul adverbelor de frecventa e dupa verb:
        I am usually late - De obicei intarzii
        That actor was always funny Acel actor era totdeauna nostim
      • in cazul celorlalte verbe (exceptand modalele) locul adverbelor de frecventa e in fata verbului:
        She always sings well. - Ea totdeauna canta bine.
        They sometimes find beautiful seashells - Ei cateodata gasesc scoici frumoase
      • In cazul verbelor modale (ex: can, may must etc) adverbele de frecventa se pun dupa verb:
      • I can sometimes draw well - Cateodata desenez bine.
        He must always come to the meeting - El trebuie totdeauna sa vina la sedinta.
      • In cazul timpurilor compuse, adverbele de frecventa se aseaza intre auxiliar si verb:
      • I will always remember them - Totdeauna imi voi aminti de ei.
        Observatie: In general nu se foloseste prezentul continuu cu adeverbul de frecventa


      691. Unele adverbe de frecventa pot avea si alte locuri in propozitie

      • Se pot pune inaintea subiectului.
        occasionally - din cand in cand
        frequently - mereu
        usually - deobicei
        sometimes - cateodata
      • Se pot pune si la sfarsit.
        occasionally - din cand in cand
        rarely - rareori
        often - ades

      Cateodata, am nevoie de o vacanta.
      I sometimes need a vacation
      Sometimes I need a vacation

      Deobicei, alerg repede
      Usually I run fast
      I usually run fast

      Il vizitez ades
      I often visit him.
      I visit him often.


      692.

    2. Adverbe de frecventa in propozitiile negative
    3. Ele se intercaleaza intre verb si auxiliar sau intre verb si modal, dupa caz.

      I don't always do my homework. - Nu imi fac intotdeauna temele.
      I can't always help you. - Nu pot sa te ajut totdeauna.
      I must never leave the door unlocked - Nu trebuie niciodata sa las usa neincuiata
      I am not always happy - Nu sunt totdeauna fericit.


      693. Spre deosebire de limba romana in limba engleza nu se fac doua negatii in propozitie.
      Niciodata nu a cantat tradus se spune Niciodata a cantat: He never sang.
      De aceea adverbele never - niciodata, seldom - rareori, rarely - rareori nu se folosesc in propozitii negative (propozitii cu not).

      He never went to school - Niciodata nu a mers la scoala
      He seldom eats alone - Rareori mananca singur
      I rarely see him - Il vad rareori.


      694.

    4. Adverbe de frecventa in propozitiile interogative
    5. Ele se intercaleaza intre subiect si verb.

      Do you often listen to music? - Asculti deseori muzica?
      Can you always tell who is singing? - Totdeauna iti dai seama cine canta?
      Haven't you ever been wrong?- Nu te-ai inselat niciodata?


      695. In propozitii interogative si negative never devine ever.

      Have you ever seen him? - L-ai vazut vreodata?
      No I have never seen him - Nu nu l-am vazut niciodata.
      sau
      No I haven't ever seen him.
      No, I have seldom/rarely seen him


      696. Adverbe de mod
      Daca un adverb raspunde la intrebarea CUM atunci este adverb de mod.
      Deobicei aceste adverbe se formeaza adaugand -ly la un adjectiv.

      He drives slowly - El conduce incet. (Cum conduce? - Incet) slowly e adverb de mod
      dar
      He is a slow driver. - El e un sofer incet - slow e adjectiv


      697. Cateva adverbe de mod des intalnite

      quickly (adverb) - repede - quick(adjectiv)
      The car quiickly turned right - Masina a virat repede la dreapta.
      He gave a quick answer - El a dat un rapuns rapid.

      frightfully (adverb) - nespus de, inspaimantator de - frightful (adjectiv)
      He is frightfully sad - El e inspaimantator de trist.
      He wants to forget that frightful experience. - El vrea sa uite acea experienta inspaimantatoare.

      unexpectedly (adverb) - pe neasteptate - unexpected (adjectiv)
      He unexpectedly opened the door - A deschis pe neasteptate usa
      His unexpected visit surprised everybody - Vizita lui neasteptata a surprins pe tori

      suddenly (adverb) - brusc - sudden(adjectiv)
      Suddenly, I realized I didn't know him - Deodata mi-am dat seama ca nu il cunosc.
      The sudden thump startled me - Zgomotul brusc m-a facut sa tresar


      698. Exista un numar mic de adverbe de mod care nu au terminatia -ly

      fast - repede
      hard - greu
      late - cu intarziere
      straight - drept
      well - bine

      He walks fast. - El merge repede
      fast poate fi si adjectiv
      A fast car sped by. - O masina iute a trecut in viteza

      He went straight home - S-a dus drept acasa
      straight poate fi si adjectiv
      He draws straight lines. - El trage linii drepte


      699. Hard este un adjectiv (cu intelesul de tare sau din greu) care poate deveni hardly ca adverb avand sensul de abia.
      Dar poate ramane si hard ca adverb cu intelesul de dificil.
      La fel late (tarziu) si lately (in ultimul timp)

      He hardly shows up. - Abia il vedem (la lucru)
      He works hard. - El munceste din greu.
      He arrived late. - A sosit tarziu.
      Lately, he couldn't seem to be on time for anything - In ultimul timp, parea ca nu ajunge la timp pentru nimic.


      700. Adjectivul good - bun nu formeaza adverb.
      Adverbul este well - bine

      Ai facut o treaba buna - You did a good job.
      Ai facut treaba bine - You did the job well.


      701. Verbul to taste - a gusta cere -ly pentru adverb:
      Verbul to taste - a avea gust insa nu cere.
      Aceeasi regula se aplica pentru to smell - a mirosi si to smell - a avea un miros.
      Deasemeni pentru to look - a privi si to look - a arata.
      Si pentru to feel - a pipai si to feel - a simti.

      At the king's orders, the servant obiediently tasted the food - La ordinul regelui, servitorul ascultator a gustat mancarea
      This food tastes fine, he said. - Aceasta mancare are gust normal, spuse el.

      I smell badly - Nu miros bine (Nu am un bun simt al mirosului)
      This fish smells bad. - Acest peste miroase rau.

      She looked angrily at me - S-a uitat suparata la mine.
      She looks beautiful. - Arata foarte frumoasa

      The blind man gently felt things with his fingers. - Barbatul orb pipai usor lucrurile cu degetele
      I feel happy we are leaving. - Sunt bucuros ca plecam.


      702. Adjectivele care au deja terminatia -ly raman neschimbate ca advrbe.
      Ele nu mai primesc inca un ly. lovely - incantator
      lonely - singuratic
      motherly - ca o mama
      friendly - prietenos
      neighbourly - ca un bun vecin.

      She sings lovely - Canta incantator (adverb, defineste un verb)
      She has a lovely voice - Are o voce incantatoare (adjectiv, defineste un subtantiv)

      He is a lonely man - E un barbat singuratic
      That was a lonely walk - A fost o plimbare singuratica


      703. Unele adjective care se termina in e, nu primesc - ly ci intai este indepartat e-ul:
      true - truly - cu adevarat
      whole - wholly - intreg
      nice - nicely
      polite - politely

      She draws nicely she also paints nice landscapes. - Ea deseneaza frumos, deasemeni picteaza peisaje frumoase.

      a desena frumos - frumos e adverb
      peisaje frumoase - frumoase e adjectiv

      Your idea is truly good - Ideea ta e cu adevarat buna


      704. La formarea adverbului din adjective, daca adjectivul se termina in - y, inlaturam y-ul si adaugam ily.

      crazily - cu nebunie
      happily - cu fericire
      The actor crazily read his part, waving his arms and shouting at the top of his voice. - Actorul si-a citit cu nebunie rolul, dand din brate si strigand cat il lua gura.
      The parrot happily flew away - Papagalul a zburat cu fericire in departari.


      705. Daca adjectivul se termina in - ic adaugam -ically.

      ironically - cu ironie
      enthusiastically - cu entuziasm
      He enthusiastically clapped to the music - Cu entuziasm a batut din palme in ritmul muzicii.


      706. Ca si adjectivele, adverbele au grade de comparatie.
      Pentru adverbele terminate in -ly se foloseste comparatia cu more si most:

      I can yell, you can yell more loudly than me but he can yell the most loudly. - Eu pot sa tip, tu poti sa tipi mai tare ca mine dar el tipa cel mai tare.
      desi adjectivul are formele loud - louder - the loudest.

      I have a fast car and I want more than a faster car. I want the fastest car around - Eu am o masina rapida si vreau mai mult decat o masina mai rapida. Vreau cea mai rapida masina existenta.
      We are all healing - Toti ne insanatosim
      I am doing well, you are doing better and he is doing the best - Eu ma simt bine, tu te simti si mai bine iar el se simte cel mai bine.


      707. Cand se foloseste mai mult de un adverb, ordinea normala e: de mod, de loc, de timp,

      The old man usually climbed cheerfully upstairs everyday to peer from the watchtower. - Batranul deobicei urca cu veselie la etaj zilnic ca sa se uite din foisor.


      708. Intensificatorii adverbiali sunt folositi ca emfaza pe langa verbe.
      Aceste expresii emfatice se folosesc in engleza formala in cuvantari, prezentari sau in documente scrise.
      Iata cateva din aceste adverbe:

      categorically - categoric, fara nicio rezerva
      deeply - cu putere in sentiment, profund
      enthusiastically - cu entuziasm
      freely - fara ezitare
      fully - in intregime, fara dubii
      honestly - cu sinceritate
      positively - fara dubii
      readily - fara ezitare
      sincerely - sincer, urari de bine
      strongly - cu convingere
      totally - fara dubii
      utterly - fara dubii


      9.PREPOZITIA


      709. Prepozitiile sunt parti de vorbire care indica legatura temporala spatiala sau logica dintre substantive, pronume si alte cuvinte din propozitie.
      Sunt invariabile si de cele mai multe ori in engleza stau in fata unui substantiv.

      in dulap - in the cupboard
      sub pat - under the bed
      acasa - at home (la casa)



      710. In englezeste prepozitiile pot fi simple sau compuse, adica formate dintr-unul sau mai multe cuvinte

      The toy is in the box and the box is next to the TV set. - Jucaria e in cutie iar cutia este langa televizor
      in - in (prepozitie simpla)
      next to - langa (prepozitie compusa)


      711. on - prepozitie de timp

      • se foloseste pentru a indica o zi a saptamanii sau o zi a anului.

      I will go see him on Monday. - Ma duc sa-l vad luni.
      I was born on October 13. on Monday - M-am nascut pe 13 octombrie, lunea.


      712. in - prepozitie de timp

      • indica luna sau anotimpul
      • indica perioada din zi
      • indica anul
      • indica peste cat timp va avea loc ceva

      in March - in martie
      in winter - iarna
      in the morning - dimineata
      in the evening - seara
      I will graduate in 2014 - Voi absolvi in 2014
      in an hour - intr-o ora


      713. at - prepozitie de timp

      • Se foloseste in legatura cu noaptea.

      At night I hear voices. - Noaptea aud voci


      714. since - prepozitie de timp

      • Dintr-un moment trecut si pana acum.

      Since World War II many things have changed.- De la al doilea razboi mondial multe s-au schimbat.


      715. for - prepozitie de timp

      • Timp de, adica incepand intr-o anumita perioada de timp, din trecut si pana acum.

      She has been away for two years - A fost plecata timp de doi ani


      716. from - prepozitie de timp

      • De la - marcheaza momentul de inceput al unei actiuni.

      I start working from 6 in the evening - Muncesc incepand de la 6 seara.


      717. ago - prepozitie de timp

      • acum (numai legat de timp)

      Two years ago - Acum doi ani


      718. before - prepozitie de timp

      • legat de timp inseamna inainte de o anumita data.

      He was born before 1980. - El s-a nascut inainte de 1980.
      Before you leave - Inainte sa pleci.


      719. to - prepozitie de timp

      • are rolul lui fara din romana pentru exprimarea timpului

      12 fara 10, 10 to 12.


      720. past - prepozitie de timp

      • - are rolul lui si din romana pentru exprimarea timpului:

      12 si 10 - 10 past 12


      721. till/until - prepozitie de timp

      • impreuna cu FROM formeaza combinatia: dela ... pana la
      • fara FROM inseamna pana.
      Till si until sunt sinonime.

      I study English from 6 to 7 everyday. - Studiez engleza de la 6 la 7 zilnic.
      He has until Friday to finish the project. - Are pana vineri sa-si termine proiectul?
      Please stay indoors until the storm has passed. - Te rog stai in casa pana trece furtuna.


      722. by - prepozitie de timp

      • cel tarziu
      • pana in

      I will be back by six. - Ma intorc cel tarziu la 6.
      By June I had learned to ride a bike. - Pana in iunie invatasem sa merg pe bicicleta.


      723. by spre deosebire de until indica o data limita

      He has until Friday to finish the project - until este pozitiv, arata tot intervalul de timp in care el poate termina proiectul
      He has by Friday to finish the project - are caracter de avertizare


      724. over - prepozitie de timp

      • over este numai in legatura cu trecutul.
        In a century from now - e in viitor.

      over a century ago - acum peste un secol
      over time - de-a lungul timpului.
      He stayed over the weekend - A stat (la noi) peste weekend.
      We talked over a cup of coffee Am stat de vorba la o ceasca de cafea.


      725. of - prepozitie de timp

      • se foloseste la exprimarea datei.

      The Fourth of July - patru iulie
      The First of December - intai decembrie
      He was born on the the 20th of May.- S-a nascut pe 20 mai.


      726. after - prepozitie de timp

      • se foloseste la exprimarea orei
      • inseamna dupa

      10 after five. Cinci si zece
      I am tired after I run - Sunt obosit dupa ce alerg.
      year after year - an dupa an.


      727. during - prepozitie de timp

      • in timpul.

      During the day I play and at night I work. - In timpul zilei ma joc si in timpul noptii muncesc.
      During the concert, my cellphone rang - In timpul concertului, mi-a sunat mobilul.


      728. IN - prepozitie de loc

      • in din romaneste
      • cand actiunea este statica, se poate traduce cu intr-un,intr-o
      • partile corpului se folosesc cu in
      • se foloseste la superlative.
      • orasele mari sunt cu IN.
      Obs:Pentru in autobuz, in tren, in avion vezi on

      I lost my keys in the car - Mi-am pierdut cheile in masina.
      I found them in a pocket - Le-am gasit intr-un buzunar.
      shot in the arm - impuscat in brat
      the most beautiful girl in the land - cea mai frumoasa fata din tinut
      one in a thousand - unul dintr-o mie.
      in Paris, in Bucharest


      729. Alte contexte pentru IN

      Is Margaret in? Este Margareta acasa? Aici in este de fapt adverb.
      arm in arm - la brat
      in the sky - pe cer
      in the field - pe camp.


      730. AT - prepozitie de loc

      • inseamna la
        Daca actiunea este statica se foloseste at
      Pentru verbe de miscare vezi to.

      He's at the door - El e la usa.
      He's at the railway station - E la gara.
      I sat down at the table - M-am asezat la masa.
      I'm at the library. - Sunt la biblioteca.


      731. ON - prepozitie de loc

      • se foloseste de asemeni la etaje
      • TV, radio. internet
      • autobuz, avion, tren

      on the table, the chair etc - pe masa, pe scaun etc
      on the left/right - pe (partea) stanga/dreapta
      on the first floor - la primul etaj
      on TV - la TV.
      on the radio - la radio
      on the internet - pe internet
      I lost my keys on the bus, on the plane, on the train - Mi-am pierdut cheile in autobuz, in avion, in tren


      732. BY/NEXT TO/BESIDE - prepozitie de loc

      • langa, alaturi.
      By, next to si beside sunt sinonime (inseamna acelasi lucru).

      In the picture, my friend is standing by me - In poza prietena mea sta langa mine.
      Stand by me! - Sprijina-ma (moral)!


      733. BESIDES - prepozitie de loc

      • Besides poate fi tradus cu pe langa
      Besides nu are sensul din Pe langa plapii fara sot care este mai degraba by. By the odd numbered poplars.
      BESIDES nu trebuie confundat cu beside.

      Pe langa matematica, iau si cursuri de fizica.- Besides math I also take physics classes.


      734. UNDER - prepozitie de loc

      • sub
        poate avea si sens abstract.

      The dog is under the table - Cainele e sub masa
      Underground, ants build entire cities. - Sub pamant, furnicile construiesc adevarate orase.
      This job is under me - Aceasta slujba nu este demna de mine.
      Under construction - in constructie.
      Under atac - atacat.
      Under arest - arestat.


      735. UNDERNEATH – prepozitie de loc
      - are acelasi inteles ca under dar subliniaza ideea de ceva mic, complet acoperit de ceva mare.
      Asemanator cu dedesubt.
      Underneath se refera numai la lucruri fizice nu se refera la situatii abstracte.

      The money is underneath the book. - Banii sunt sub carte.


      736. BELOW – prepozitie de loc
      – sub
      Below arata ca ceva este mai jos decat altceva, nu ca este neaparat sub un obiect material.

      below zero temperature - sub 0 grade
      Below the surface seaweed grows in abundance - Sub suprafata (apei) algele cresc din abundenta.
      The image below – imaginea de mai jos.
      He is below average – El se afla sub medie.


      737. OVER – prepozitie de loc
      – peste

      I will spread the blanket over the bed. - Voi intinde patura peste pat
      The bear went over the mountain – Ursul a trecut peste munte.
      A little over a kilometer – Putin peste un kilometru.
      Walk over the bridge – Treci peste pod (traverseaza podul)
      He will get over it –Ii va trece.
      Over his head – Peste intelegerea lui, prea destept pentru el.
      We quarelled over nothing – Ne-am certat pentru nimic.
      Over here – aici, over there – acolo.


      738. ABOVE – prepozitie de loc
      - deasupra.
      Above este opusul lui Below iar Over este opusul lui Under.

      The room above (us). Camera de deasupra noastra.
      5 degrees above 0 - 5 grade peste 0.
      I try to stay above these quarrels – Incerc sa raman deasupra acestor certuri.


      739. ACROSS – prepozitie de loc
      – peste, de-a curmezisul.
      - de partea cealalta.
      Over are intelesul de asezat peste ceva, across nu.

      I live across the street – Locuiesc pe partea cealalta a strazii.
      I came across an old man in the forest - Am dat de/peste un batran in padure.
      A hole 2 meters across sau 2 meters wide – O gaura cu diametrul de 2 metri.


      740. THROUGH – prepozitie de loc
      - prin. Across este o miscare directa (to cross = a traversa).
      Through presupune ca si prin, un loc inchis.

      I walked through the forest – Am mers prin padure.
      I drove through the tunnel.


      741. TO – prepozitie de loc
      – la, catre.
      Spre deosebire de AT care arata ca te afli undeva, TO arata ca mergi spre acel loc.

      I am going to the library. In 10 minutes I will be at the library – Merg catre bibliteca. In 10 minute voi fi la biblioteca.
      He turned to me – S-a intors catre mine.
      He worked them to exhaustion - I-a pus sa munceasca pana la epuizare.
      He was nursed back to health – A fost ingrijit pana la insanatosire.
      An answer to my question – Un raspuns la intrebarea mea.


      742. INTO – prepozitie de loc
      – in
      Spre deosebire de in, into exprima patrunderea intr-un spatiu.

      Daca ideea nu este ca el este intr-un loc anume, se zice to.
      He went in/into the kitchen to get the salt - S-a dus in bucatarie sa ia sarea.
      . Go to your room! - Du-te in camera ta (esti pedepsit)!

      He went deeper and deeper into the forest. - S-a afundat din ce in ce mai adanc in padure.
      -He went into the kitchen.- A intrat in bucatarie.
      The prince was turned into a frog.- Printul s-a transformat intr-o broasca


      743. TOWARDS – prepozitie de loc
      - spre
      . Miscare intr-o directie dar cu aproximatie.

      Take 10 steps towards me. - Fa 10 pasi spre mine.


      744. BEFORE – prepozitie de loc
      - inainte

      He stood before me in line – Era inaintea mea la coada.


      745. ONTO – prepozitie de loc
      - pe ceva mai sus decat restul

      The dog jumped onto the chair – Cainele a sarit pe scaun.


      746. ABOUT – prepozitie de loc
      - in jurul

      There are flowers all about me. - Sunt flori peste tot in jurul meu.


      747. WITH
      - cu
      - in sprijinul
      - din cauza, de

      I write with my left hand – Scriu cu mana stanga.
      He came with a present – A venit cu un cadou.
      He left the keys with the neighbors – A lasat cheile cu (la) vecini.
      I'm with the peace movement – Sprijin (Sunt cu) miscarea pacifista. trembling with fear – tremurand de frica.
      Sick with diabetes – bolnav de diabet.
      Sick with an infection: Bolnav din cauza unei infectii.


      748. TO
      - cu
      - cateodata se traduce cu in
      - dupa
      - in onoarea - se foloseste si ca infinitiv fara verb cand verbul se subintelege

      face to face: fata in fata
      face pressed to the window – fata apasata in (de) geam
      They danced to the music – Au dansat dupa muzica.
      According to his abilities – Potrivit/Dupa capcitatile lui.
      A toast to my guest - Un toast in onoarea musafirului meu.
      I'll drink to that – Voi bea/inchina in onoarea acestei idei
      Sing if you want to - Canta daca vrei (sa canti este subinteles).
      I hurt his feelings but I didn't mean to - L-am jignit dar nu am vrut (sa-l jignesc se subintelege)
      E gresit sa zici: I hurt his feelings but I didn't mean, desi in romaneste pare corect.

      749. TOWARDS
      - cateodata inseamna si fata de

      Her feelings towards me – Sentimentele ei fata de mine.


      750. OF
      - ale, de
      - in: Doctor of Law – doctor in drept, doctor of medicine – doctor in medicina etc.
      - din partea

      Observatie Cadoul e din partea lui, din partea dreapta etc se formeaza cu FROM.

      the customs of Romania – obieiurile Romaniei
      west of here – la vest de aici
      dress of silk – rochie de matase
      glass of wine – pahar de/cu vin,
      they were dying of hunger – mureau de foame
      how nice of him! - ce dragut din partea lui


      751. OFF
      - de pe, din

      I got off the bus/the train/the boat/the plane – M-am dat jos din autobuz/tren/vapor/avion.
      I raised the book off the floor – Am ridicat cartea de pe podea.
      Take this burden off my back – Ia-mi aceasta greutatea din spate.


      752. OFF se poate folosi si in alte contexte:

      He drove off – El a plecat cu masina.
      He dozed off – a atipit
      He shaved off his beard – si-a ras barba.
      Turn off the light/ the radio! - Stinge lumina/radioul!
      I took my clothes/socks/hat/shoes off – Mi-am scos hainele/ciorapii/palaria/pantofii.
      The show/wedding etc is off. - Spectacolul/nunta etc nu se mai tine.
      We're off to see the wizard! The wonderful wizard of Oz! - Am plecat sa-l vedem pe vrajitor! Pe minunatul vrajitor din Oz!
      I'm off duty – Sunt in afara programului


      753. OUT OF: - (afara) din

      He got out of the car – A coborat din masina.
      What is the wooden statue made of? It's made out of wood, silly!
      He did it out of spite – A facut-o de ciuda.
      Out of town by sundown – Afara din oras pana la apusul soarelui (ordin dat impotriva cuiva in zilele vestului salbatic).


      754. ABOUT
      - despre
      - aprximativ

      A book about parrots – O carte despre papagali
      That happened about a year ago – Asta s-a intamplat cam acum un an.
      He is about my age/height/weight – El este cam de varsta/inaltimea/greutatea mea.


      755. ABOUT TO
      - pe punctul:

      I was about to miss the train – Am fost pe punctul sa pierd trenul.


      756. BETWEEN
      - printre, dintre, intre:
      Totdeauna se foloseste BETWEEN in cazul a doua optiuni si nu AMONG.

      This is between you and him. - Aceasta problema este intre tine si el.
      The choice between good and evil - Alegerea dintre bine si rau.
      I talked on the phone between classes - In perioada dintre cursuri am vorbit la telefon.


      757. AMONG:
      - printre, dintre, intre. AMONG spre deosebire de between arata apartenenta
      Daca sunt numai doua substantive implicate folositi between

      He is among the winners - El se afla printre castigatori.
      The money was divided among the winners. Banii s-aui impartit intre castigatori.


      758. UPON - pe, asupra

      The wrath of God be upon you! – Fie mania lui Dumnezeu asupra ta!
      The little girl climbed upon her dad's shoulders. - Fetita s-a urcat pe umerii tatalui ei.
      The statue is upon a pedestal – Statuia este pe un piedestal.
      Combina up si on.


      759. OVER – are si intelesul de terminat

      Over and out – La radiourile vechi: Convorbire terminata
      The movie is over - Filmul s-a terminat


      760. A nu se confunda TO cu TOO care inseamna DEASEMENI sau cu TWO care inseamna DOI.

      I too want to go with those two – Si eu vreau sa merg cu cei doi.


      761. FROM
      - de la
      - datorita
      - de

      A letter from my aunt. - O scrisoare de la matusa mea.
      I walked home from school – Am venit pe jos acasa de la scoala.
      Taking a book from the box – Luand o carte din cutie.
      He collapsed from all the hard work. - S-a prabusit datorita (de la) muncii istovitoare
      She knows right from wrong – Ea stie binele de rau.
      It is 100 kilometers from here. - Este la 100 de mile de aici.


      762. Vorbitorii nativi de multe ori pun prepozitii la sfarsitul frazei ceea ce poate incurca pe un strain:

      That's where I'm going to. - Acolo ma duc
      That's where I'm coming from - De-acolo vin
      The money was not accounted for - Banii nu au fost explicati.
      Which class is he in? - In care clasa e?
      What are you talking about? - (Despre) ce vorbesti
      That is something I am aware of - Sunt constient de acest fapt.


      10.CONJUNCTII


      763. Conjunctiile leaga cuvinte de acelasi tip gramatical.
      Verbe cu verbe, substantive cu substantive.
      Cele mai simple conjunctii, se folosesc la fel ca in romana si sunt
      si – AND
      sau – OR
      dar – BUT
      deci (asa ca) – SO

      Anne and Jane go to a movie - Anne si Jane merg la film
      Water and oil don't mix - Apa si uleiul nu se amesteca

      Do you want ham or cheese? - Vrei sunca sau branza?
      Are you coming or going? - Vii sau pleci?

      I can't skate but I can ski - Nu pot sa patinez dar pot sa schiez.
      I am tall but you are taller - Eu sunt imalt dar tu esti mai inalt

      It was late so I left
      I was hungry so I ate



      764. ALTHOUGH/THOUGH
      – desi.
      - in alte contexte are intelesul de totusi sau desi:

      Although it is late I am still at work - Desi este tarziu sunt inca la birou.
      I can not come, I would like to though. - Nu pot sa vin, mi-ar placea totusi (sa vin).
      I can not come though I would like to - Nu pot sa vin desi mi-ar placea


      765. AS
      - ca
      – pe cand
      – asa cum

      as ...as
      – She is as cute as a button sau she is cute as a button. - Ea este draguta ca un nasturas.
      - Clean as a pack of new pins - curat ca un pachet de ace noi.
      - Happy as a skylark - fericita ca o ciocarlie
      etc
      Do as I do – Fa ca mine.
      As I read on the lesson became easier – Pe cand citeam lectia a devenit mai usoara.
      He cannot come as you well know – Nu poate veni asa cum bine sti.


      766. BECAUSE
      - pentru ca

      Take your coat because it's cold outside – Ia-ti haina pentru ca este frig afara


      767. IF
      – daca, daca...atunci

      If you are happy, clap you're hands. Daca esti vesel, bate din palme
      sau
      Atunci bate din palme – Then clap your hands.


      768. SINCE si SINCE WHEN
      – de cand
      SINCE nu se foloseste la interogativ
      La interogativ se foloseste SINCE WHEN.

      The boy is sad since his parrot flew away. - Baiatul este trist de cand i-a zburat papagalul.
      Since when do you swim? Since I was six.- De cand inoti? De cand aveam sase ani.


      769. SINCE
      – are si intelesul de cum
      - din

      Since you know everything, I won't tell you – Cum tu le stii pe toate nu iti spun.
      She has been skiing since childhood – Ea a schiat din copilarie.


      770. THAN
      - decat, ca

      I am taller than you.- Eu sunt mai inalt ca tine.
      Better later than never - Mai bine mai tarziu decat niciodata


      771. UNLESS
      - decat daca

      Don't answer the door unless it rings three times. - Sa nu raaspunzi la usa decat daca suna de trei ori.


      772. WHERE
      - unde, acolo unde

      Where are my eyeglasses? - Unde imi sant ochelarii?
      Where you left them. - Acolo unde i-ai lasat.
      He stays in hotels where rooms are cheap. - Sta in hoteluri unde (in care) camerele sunt iefine.
      He stays where rooms are cheap. - El sta acolo unde camerele sunt ieftine.


      773. WHERE...FROM?
      - de unde

      Where are you from? - De unde esti?
      I am from Bucharest – Sunt din Bucuresti


      774. WHEN - cand, atunci cand

      When you buy food, always check the expiration date. - Cand cumperi mancare totdeauna verifica data expirarii.
      When did she leave? - (She left) when the phone rang.
      Cand a plecat? - (A plecat) atunci cand a sunat telefonul.


      775. WHILE
      - in timp ce

      Tot while poate fi si substantiv cu intelesul de putin timp, un pic.

      Whistle while you work – Fluiera in timp ce muncesti.
      Stay with us for a while - Stai cu noi un pic.


      776. BOTH ... AND
      - atat...cat si

      Both his dog and his cat sleep on his bed – Atat cainele cat si pisica lui dorm la el in pat.


      777. EITHER ... OR
      - sau...sau

      You either apologize for breaking the vase or you buy it. - Sau iti ceri scuze ca ai spart vasul sau il cumperi.


      778. NEITHER ... NOR
      - nici ...nici.

      No. I'll neither apologize nor buy it. - Nu, nici nu imi voi cere scuze nici nu il voi cumpara.


      779. NOT ONLY ... BUT ALSO
      - nu numai...ci si

      Not only was I pushed but I also hit myself when I fell over the vase. - Nu numai ca am fost impins ci m-am si lovit cand am cazut peste vas.


      11.ORDINEA CUVINTELOR


      780. Complimentul determina predicatul. El este de urmatoarele tipuri.

      Compliment direct
      Eu joc sah.
      Raspunde la intrebarea ce?
      Ce joc? Sah.
      Sah este compliment direct
      Complimentul indirect
      Eu joc sah cu bunica.
      Raspunde la una din intrebarile: (cui?, pe ce?, cu cine?, cu ce?, despre cine? despre ce? etc)
      Cu cine joc? Cu bunica.
      Bunica este compliment indirect.
      Compliment de mod
      Eu joc sah bine
      Raspunde la intrebarea Cum?
      Cum joc? Bine.
      Compliment de loc
      Eu joc sah in fata blocului
      Raspunde la intrebarea Unde?
      Unde joc? In fata blocului.
      Compliment de timp
      Eu joc sah zilnic.
      Raspunde la intrebarea Cand?
      Cand joc? Zilnic.



      781. Subiectul vine in fata predicatului iar complementul direct si complementul indirect vin dupa predicat.

      I am reading – Eu citesc
      I am reading a book – Eu citesc o carte.
      Aceasta ordine se pastreaza si in cadrul propozitiilor din fraza.
      The people who are my neighbors are reading a story book. - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc o carte.


      782. Daca exista si un complement indirect acesta vine dupa complimentul direct daca se foloseste prepozitia to.
      Daca NU se foloseste TO complementul indirect vine INAINTEA complimentul direct

      The people who are my neighbors are reading a story book (complement direct) to the little girl (complement indirect)- Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc o poveste fetitei.
      sau
      The people who are my neighbors are reading the little girl (complement indirect) a storybook(complement direct) - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc fetitei o poveste.


      783. Daca nu exista compliment direct (a storybook) este obligatoriu sa se puna TO cand complimentul indirect raspunde la intrebarea cui?

      The people who are my neighbors are reading to the little girl - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc fetitei.
      Iata un exemplu care nu cere to (nu raspunde la intrebarea cui?)
      The people who are my neighbors are reading a storybook with the little girl - Oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc cu fetita.


      784. Adverbele de timp cu caracter precis (yesterday ieri, today - azi, tomorrow - maine, last year - anul trecut, last month - luna trecuta, next year - anul viitor etc) se pun la inceputul frazei
      Orice altfel de compliment vine dupa complimentul direct daca acesta exista.
      Daca nu exista vine direct dupa predicat.

      Yesterday, the people who are my neighbors were reading a storybook to the little girl. - Ieri, oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citeau o poveste fetitei.
      Sometimes the people who are my neighbors read a storybook with the little girl.- Cateodata, oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc o poveste cu fetita.br> Sometimes the people who are my neighbors read a storybook out loud to the little girl in the evening - Cateodata, oamenii care sunt vecinii mei citesc cu voce tare o poveste fetitei seara.


      785. Alte reguli: adjectivele se pun inaintea substantivelor, iar adverbele de frecventa se intercaleaza la verbe

      Last month, the people who are my neighbors would often read a beautiful storybook to the little girl in the park in the evening. - Luna trecuta oamenii care sunt vecinii mei deseori citeau cu voce tare o frumoasa poveste fetitei seara, in park.


      786. Never si hardly au urmatoarea regula de inversare a subiectului cu predicatul.

      Se zice:
      I have never heard such beautiful stories sau
      Never have I heard such beautiful stories.
      - Niciodata nu am mai auzit povesti atat de frumoase
      I could hardly believe my ears
      sau
      Hardly could I believe my ears.
      - Abia-mi puteam auzi urechilor.


      787. Inversiunea in cazul lui if
      Cand se face o inversiune if cade.

      If I had known the truth
      sau
      Had I known the truth.


      12.CONCORDANTA TIMPURILOR


      788. In englezeste timpul unui verb (trecut, prezent sau viitor indiferent ca e continuu sau nu) trebuie sa urmeze o anumita structura in cadrul frazei, structura numita concordanta timpurilor.
      Aceasta spune ca in functie de timpul verbului din propozitia principala, verbul din propozitia secundara nu poate fi decat la un anumit timp.

      De exemplu:
      Eu mancam cand tu ai venit acasa. - I was eating when you came home.
      Cand mancam? Cand tu ai venit acasa. - propozitia secundara
      Aici si in engleza si in romana ambele propozitii sunt la trecut si se respecta concordanta timpurilor.
      Insa daca spunem: El a zis ca face bine, in romaneste nu se respecta structura ceruta de concordanta timpurilor
      Concordanta in engleza cere sa spunem El a zis ca facea bine.
      Pentru romani o asemenea exprimare da impresia ca facea bine inainte sa fii zis acest lucru, in trecut, dar in engleza constructia este : He said that he was well.
      Daca am vrea sa spunem ca mai demult era bine spunem: He said that he had been well.



      789. Daca in principala verbul este la prezent sau la viitor, in secundara verbul poate fi la orice timp prezent trecut sau viitor dupa context.

      He says that he is a student
      He says that he was a student
      He says that he will be a student

      He will say that he is a student
      He will say that he was a student
      He will say that he will be a student


      790. Daca in principala verbul este la trecut in secundara verbul va fi la un timp perfect (aceste timpuri au legatura cu trecutul)

      He said that he was a student: El a spus ca este student
      Traducere exacta: El a spus ca era (a fost) student (Past Tense)

      He said that he had been a student: El a spus ca el era student
      Traducere exacta: El a spus ca fusese student (Past Perfect)

      He said that he would be a student: El a spus ca va fi student
      Traducere exacta: El a spus ca ar fi student (Conditional, numit in acest context si Future in the Past)


      791. Daca principala este la conditional prezent atunci secundara este la trecut (past tense)

      I would go there if I had a passport: M-as duce acolo daca as avea pasaport


      792. Daca principala este la conditional trecut atunci secundara este la mai mult ca perfectul

      I would have gone there if I had had a passport. - M-as fi dus acolo daca as fi avut pasaport.


      793. Daca secundara exprima un adevar absolut

      He said that global warming is happening for real: A spus ca incalzirea globala se intampla cu adevarat. - nu was happening
      They recited the poem that is the longest in the world. - A recitat poezia care e cea mai lunga din lume - nu was the longest


      794. Daca secundara descrie un loc, da o explicatie sau face o comparatie.

      He lived in a town where everybody rides horses. - Locuia intr-un oras unde toti oamenii calaresc cai.
      He went to Brasov because he is from there. - S-a dus la Brasov pentru ca e de acolo
      They said that old cars are best. - Ei au spus ca masinile vechi sunt cele mai bune


      795. Daca secundara joaca rolul de adjectiv (este o propozitie atributiva) de exemplu:

      Elevul a compus o poezie care imi place foarte mult: The student composed a poem that I like very much.(si nu that I liked)


      796. May din secundara se transforma in might la trecut, daca secundara a fost introdusa cu that.

      He hopes he may get another chance: Spera sa mai primeasca o sansa.
      He hoped that he might get another chance. - Spera sa mai primeasca o sansa.
      sau (fara may si might)
      He hoped he got another chance.


      797. Daca principala este la viitor, secundara dupa cum am vazut poate sa fie la orice timp.
      DAR daca este introdusa prin when, until, before, after atunci secundara se pune la prezent.

      You will know when I am done (NU will be done) - Vei sti cand am terminat
      I will stay here until the rain stops (NU: the rain will stop) - Voi sta aici pana se opreste ploaia.


      798. Daca principala este la conditional prezent si secundara contine verbul ito be acesta devine were la toate persoanele.

      I would have my own car if I were 18. - As avea masina mea daca as avea 18 ani.


      799. Principalele care contin as if (ca si cum), if (daca), if only(doar daca), it is time (este timpul, este cazul) si wish that (a dori sa) sunt urmate de secundare la trecut.

      I wish I was younger: Imi doresc sa fiu mai tanar
      It is time you stopped feeling sorry for yourself: Este cazul sa nu-ti mai plangi de mila.
      She plays the violin as if her life depended on it: Canta la vioara ca si cum ii depinde viata de asta (altfel isi da duhul).


      800. Sa presupunem ca Alice zice:

      I want to buy this car tomorrow: Vreau sa cumpar masina asta maine.
      Aceasta este vorbirea directa.
      Alice a zis ca vrea sa cumpere masina asta maine este vorbire indirecta
      Asa cum rezulta din aceasta constructie acest gen de fraza cere intotdeauna atentie sporita la concordanta timpurilor.


      801.

      • Daca atunci cand povestim ce a spus Alice suntem in aceeasi zi si langa masina spunem:

        Alice said (that) she wanted to buy this car tommorow. - Alice a zis ca vrea sa cumpere masina asta maine.
      • Vorbirea indirecta se introduce prin that (ca in romana, Alice a spus ca...) Dar acesta poate lipsi.
      • Daca suntem in viitor si nu langa masina spunem:
        Alice said that she wanted to buy that car the next day.
        In loc de that putem zice the one I told you about sau doar the car etc ca si in romaneste.


      802. Daca vrem sa spunem

      Alice said to me that... (Alice mi-a spus mie...) se inlocuieste verbul to say cu to tell . Alice told me...


      803. Iata o lista de schimbari care pot fi necesare la vorbirea indirecta:

      • this devine that
      • these devine those
      • now devine then
      • tomorrow devine the next day
      • today devine that day
      • yesterday devine the day before
      • ago devine before
      • next week poate deveni last week


      13.REGULI DE ORTOGRAFIE ENGLEZA


      804. Urmatoarele sunete a (cat) , e (hen), i (pig), o (dog), u (bug) se numesc vocale scurte.



      805. Sunetele vocalice din made, Pete, fine, bone, fuse se numesc vocale lungi.



      806. Diftong este un sunet format din doua sunete care se citesc odata.
      In romaneste oa (soarta) este diftong.

      Engleza contine 8 diftomgi care se pronunta in urmatoarele cuvinte:
      day - zi
      sky - cer
      toy - jucarie
      beer - bere
      bear - urs
      tour - tur
      no - nu
      brown - maron


      807. Litera S

      La inceputul cuvantului se citeste intotdeauna ca pe romaneste:
      to swim – a inota
      same – la fel
      to see – a vedea
      sky - cer
      soft – moale
      seat - scaun
      seed – samanta
      Litera s la mijlocul cuvantului se citeste fie s:
      faster – mai repede
      loose - larg
      use - folosinta
      Fie se citeste Z
      Cazurile [si], [su] sunt tratate separat.
      SS – se pronunta s si este la mijocul sau la sfarsitul cuvantului:
      lesson - lectie
      class - clasa
      cross - cruce
      address - adresa
      less – mai mic
      to caress – a mangaia
      Exceptii
      dessert – desert
      scissors – foarfece
      to posses - a poseda


      808. C se citeste s inainte de e, i, y :

      center - centru, celery - telina, malice – rautate, circle - cerc, cinema – cinematograf, cyanide – cianura, bicycle – bicicleta.


      809. Combinatiile sce si sci se citesc tot S:

      science - stiinta
      ascent - inaltare


      810. S se citeste si combinatia ps la inceputul cuvantului:

      psalm - psalm
      psychology - psihologie

      in interior se citeste ps:
      corpse - cadavru
      to incapsulate - a incapsula


      811. Pluralele sau terminatiile verbale s si es se citesc

      Fie s daca vin dupa sunEtele (nu literele): f, t, k,p: laughs - rasete, staffs - toiege, cats - pisici, works - munci, maps - harti
      Fie [iz] dupa s, z, x, ch, tch, ge, dge, sh
      Fie z in celelalte cazuri.


      812. Sunetul C

      K la inceputul cuvantului se citeste c daca nu este urmat de un n: kitten – pisoi, kettle – ceainic, kitchen bucatarie, to kiss – a saruta, to kill – a omorξ.

      Daca K la inceputul cuvantului este urmat de un n, nu se aude K: knife – cutit; to knit - a impleti, knee – genunchi, to know – a sti.


      813. Litera K

      Daca este la sfarsitul cuvantului, si vine dupa o vocala scurta se inlocuieste cu ck
      to pack – aimpacheta, cracker – biscuit, sick – bolnav, dock – debarcader, truck – camion
      Daca vine dupa o vocala lunga. un diftong sau dupa o consoana k nu se schimba
      look - uite, book - carte, beak - cioc, skeleton - schelet, sky - cer, napkin - servetel


      814. Litera C

      Se poate citi si c nu numai s. Aceasta inaintea vocalelor a, o, u si inaintea consoanelor
      cat, corn, record, calculate, crab, class.
      Aceasta regula este valabila si pentru CC inaintea vocalelor a, o, u account, occur, accord.
      Inaintea vocalelor E, I, Y,.CC se citeste [CS].
      Ca terminatie in combinatia ic, c totdeauna se citeste c.
      analytic - analitic
      historic - istoric


      815. QUE in cateva cuvinte se citeste la sfarsit C

      unique - unic
      technique - tehnic
      physique - fizic


      816. Literele CH

      Reprezinta sunetul c in cuvinte de origine greaca sau latina:
      mechanic - mecanic, monarchy - monarhie, school - scoala, chemistry - chimie


      817. Sunetul CH

      Aceasta combinatie tipic reprezinta sunetul ch din multe cuvintelor englezesti cum ar fi:
      chair - scaun, rich - bogat, church – biserica, child – copil.

      El mai poate reprezenta sunetul c dupa cum am vazut sau sunetul s (din soarece) in cuvinte de origine frantuzeasca (chic).


      818. Combinatia TCH reprezinta acelasi sunet ca ch tipic

      kitchen - bucatarie
      to catch – a prinde


      819. Combinatia TU e foarte aproape de ch tipic

      depature - plecare
      nature - natura
      century - secol


      820. Sunetul G
      Litera G se citeste G inainte de vocalele a, o, u si inainte de consoane, cu exceptia lui h
      God, game, gold, guy, singular, kangaroo, grass, grey, glass.
      In unele cuvinte inainte de E si I se citeste g, in altele se citeste j [dz].

      Cuvinte in care se citeste g:
      girl - fata, to get - a lua, geese - gaste, anger - manie, singer - cantaret, finger - deget.
      Daca incheie cuvantul G totdeauna se citeste G: dog, bag, fog, beg, fig.
      GG in general se citeste g: giggle, wiggle, egg.
      Exceptii exaggerate, suggest
      Unele cuvinte au terminatia GUE, niciodata GU: tongue - limba, vague - vag


      821. Literele GH

      Se pronunta G numai la inceputul cuvantului:
      ghost - stafie, ghetto - ghetou
      La sfarsitul cuvantului aceasta combinatie sau nu se citeste sau se pronunta F.
      Cuvinte in care nu se citeste: though – desi, through – prin, bough – ramura.
      Cuvinte in care se citeste F:
      to laugh - a rade; rough - aspru;

      822. Combinatia GHT
      Este alta combinatie des intalnita.

      Ea pastreaza regulile lui GH anume
      Sunt cuvinte in care combinatia GH nu se aude si GHT se citeste T
      thought – gand, height – inaltime, weight – greutate. si altele, putine, in care GHT se citeste FT: laughter


      823. Sunetul dat de litera J(joy)

      Litera G se citeste ca joy in unele cuvinte inainte de E si I:
      gentle - bland, general - general, giant - urias, gin - gin (rachiu), giraffe - girafa
      Se citeste totdeauna j(joy) inainte de y:
      gypsy - tigan, gym - sala de fitness, Egypt - Egipt


      824. La inceputul sau la mijlocul cuvintelor se foloseste de multe ori litera J:

      joy - bucurie
      jet - avion cu reactie
      just - tocmai
      pajamas - pijama


      825. La sfarsitul cuvintelor adeseori se foloseste DGE dupa vocale scurte

      bridge - pod
      judge - judecator
      edge - margine
      badge - insigna
      badger - bursuc
      to fidget - a se foi


      826. GE: cottage, manage apare oriunde in cuvant si este si parte din terminatia des intalnita age.

      Se citeste j(joy) cu exceptia unor cuvinte de origine straina: garage. (se citeste si garaj)


      827. Sunetul ZH (j romanesc)

      Combinatia GE in cazul unor cuvinte de origine straina:
      garage - garaj, mirage - miraj, montage - montaj.


      828. Sunetul ZH (j romanesc)
      Literele SI se citesc ca acest sunet.

      erosion - eroziune
      explosion - explozie
      vision - viziune


      829. Sunetul ZH (j romanesc)
      Literele SU se citesc ca acest sunet.

      visual - vizual
      leisure - lejer
      pleasure - placere


      830. Sunetul ZH
      GH se citeste F la sfarsitul unor cuvinte

      laugh - raset
      cough - tusit
      enough - destul


      831. Sunetul F

      De cele mai multe ori este dat chiar de consoana F
      file - fisier, after - dupa, safe - siguranta, fin - aripioara (de peste), scarf - batic
      Daca vocala inainte de f este scurta si dupa f fie vine inca o vocala sau se termina cuvantul, f se dubleaza
      to affirm - a afirma, offer - oferta, cuff - manseta, muff - manson, bluff - cacealma


      832. Sunetul F
      Combinatia PH reprezinta sunetul F

      photo - fotografie
      alphabet - alfabet
      symphony - simfonie


      833. Sunetul S (ca in scoala)
      Cel mai ades acest sunet este reprezentat de combinatia SH

      to shine – a straluci
      fish – peste
      shampoo – sampon
      she – ea
      shelter – adapost


      834. Combinatia CH poate fi citita s (scoala) in cuvinte de origine frantuzeasca

      chic - sic
      chef - sef
      mustache - mustata


      835. Combinatia CI e citita s (scoala)

      magician - magician
      delicious - delicios
      social - social


      836. Combinatia SI poate fi citita s(scoala)

      mission - misiune
      extension - extensiune
      conprehension - comprehensiune
      insa nu
      sick - bolnav
      rasin - stafida


      837. Combinatia TI poate fi citita s (scoala)

      to negotiate - a negocia
      patient - pacient
      section - sectiune
      insa nu
      static - static
      tiara - tiara


      838. Combinatia SU poate fi citita s (scoala)

      sugar - zahar
      sure - sigur
      pressure - presiune
      tissue - tesut
      insa nu
      sun - soare
      opossum - oposum


      839. X - reprezinta sunetul X
      Ca si in romana

      CS:
      exercise – exercitiu
      to explain – a explica
      extreme – extrema
      export – export
      to mix - a amesteca
      GZ:
      exact – exact
      example - exemplu
      to exit - a iesi


      840. XH se citeste cateodata tot X

      H nu se aude
      cs: exhibition - expozitie
      gz: to exhaust – a epuiza

      H se aude
      to exhume – a exhuma
      to exhale – a expira


      841. Combinatia CC inaintea vocalelor E, I, Y
      Se citeste [CS]

      accident - accident
      to succeed - a reusi


      842. Sunetul Z
      Litera S de multe ori reda acest sunet.

      rose - trandafir
      to lose – a pierde
      to use – a folosi


      843. Combinatia ES
      Dupa s, z, x, ch, tch, ge, dge, sh se citeste [IZ]

      classes - clase
      roses - trandafiri
      prizes - premii
      quizzes - teste
      matches - chibrituri
      oranges - portocale
      bridges - poduri
      dishes - farfurii
      fixes . repara


      844. La inceputul cuvantului sunetul Z este aproape totdeauna reprezentat prin litera Z

      zebra - zebra
      zero – zero
      zoo - zoo
      exceptie
      xylophone - xilofon


      845. Litera Z se citeste Z in practic toate cuvintele
      Literele ZZ se citesc tot Z
      In foarte putine cazuri z si zz se citesc ca in limbile din care provin cuvintele respective:
      pizza, mozzarella, Mozart, Nazi.
      Deasemeni in cele cateva cuvinte in care apare combinatia TZ ea se citeste ts:
      waltz - vals, blitz - blit (aparat foto)

      dozen – duzina
      lazy – lenes
      quiz – extemporal
      puzzle
      muzzle – botnita


      846. In cateva cuvinte grecesti litera X se citeste Z

      xylophone – xilofon
      xenfobia – xenofobie
      xerox - xerox


      847. mb la sfarsitul cuvantului se citeste m:

      comb - pieptan
      miel - lamb


      848. wr la inceput se citeste r

      to write - a scrie
      to wring - a stoarce
      wrist - inceietura mainii


      849. lk dupa a se citeste k

      talk - conversatie
      walk - plimbare
      altfel se citeste lk
      milk - lapte
      bulk - in masa


      850. Cand intr-un cuvant exista o singura vocala si aceasta nu se afla la sfarsitul cuvantului se citeste ca vocala scurta

      fat - gras
      cat - pisica
      hen - gaina
      men - barbati
      big - mare
      will - testament
      hot - fierbinte
      dog - caine
      bug - insecta
      dumb - prost

      Exceptie comb - pieptan


      851. O vocala singura aflata la sfarsitul cuvantului se citeste ca vocala lunga.

      she - ea
      he - el
      no - nu
      go - mergi


      852. Cand un cuvant se termina in e, acesta este mut dar vocala dinaintea lui devine lunga

      to make - a face
      cradle - leagan pentru bebelus
      fire - foc
      hole - gaura
      abuse - abuz
      exceptii
      scare - spaima
      some - unii
      sure - sigur


      853. Cand doua vocale diferite sunt alaturate deobicei prima se citeste ca vocala lunga iar a doua nu se citeste

      rain - ploaie, pail - galeata, play - joaca, lied - a mintit, cheat - trisor
      dar sunt destule exceptii de la aceasta regula
      read – read – read - a citi
      bread - paine
      to swear - a jura
      said - a zis
      fair - targ
      cow - vaca
      brown - maron


      854. Cand o vocala este urmata de o consoana dubla, ea se citeste ca vocala scurta.

      fatty - grasan
      skinny - slabanog
      summer - vara
      funny - nostim
      to stammer - a se balbai


      855. Ee si uu se citesc ca vocale lungi

      to peek - a trage cu ochiul
      to greet - a saluta
      vacuum - aspirator


      856. Oo deobicei se citeste u ca in

      pool - bazin
      fool - prost
      tool - unealta
      dar si ca in
      book - carte
      foot - picior
      door - usa


      14.CATEVA DIFERENTE DINTRE ENGLEZA BRITANICA SI AMERICANA


      857. In engleza americana present perfect este mult mai putin folosit si este inlocuit de past tense.

      Am pregatit masa pentru petrecere
      devine
      I have prepared the meal for the party – engleza britanica
      I prepared the meal for the party – engleza americana
      Aceste diferente exista si in cazul folosirii adverbelor already, just si yet
      tocmai am ajuns acasa devine
      I've just got home – engleza britanica
      I just got home – engleza americana.



      858. In engleza americana verbul to have - a avea, in forma sa de verb de sine statator, nu de auxiliar, de multe ori este inlocuit de have got.

      I have got a farm poate inlocui I have a farm. - Am o ferma


      859. Formele verbului to get

      in engleza britanica
      to get – got – got

      in engleza americana
      este deseori folosita si forma
      to get – got – gotten


      860. Datele se scriu altfel in engleza britanica fata de engleza americana.

      23 august 1944
      In engleza britanica
      the 23rd of August 1944

      In engleza americana
      august 23rd, 1944
      august 23, 1944


      861. Substantivele colective
      Un substantiv care exprima un grup: armata, comitet, stol etc

      In engleza britanica un substantiv colectiv e la singular (verbul se pune la singular) daca in cadrul propozitiei intelesul e de bloc care actioneaza ca unul si la plural in sens contrar
      A committee was appointed - A fost numit un comitet
      The committee were unable to agree - Comitetul nu s-a (s-au in engleza) putut pune de acord

      In engleza americana totdeauna aceste substantive sunt la singular
      The committee was unable to agree


      862. Auxiliarul shall e putin folosit in engleza americana.

      Iar shan't (forma negativa) nu e folosit deloc in engleza americana.

      863. In engleza americana dupa verbe ca to go - a merge, to come - a veni si to help - a ajuta se foloseste mult urmatoarea constructie:

      I want to go eat - Vreau sa merg sa mananc
      I wish to help build the house - Vreau sa ajut sa se construiasca casa
      Can you come see a movie? - Poti sa vii sa vezi un film?
      in loc de
      I want to go to eat
      I wish to help to build the house
      Can you come to see a movie?

      Engleza britanica in schimb zice:
      I want to go and eat
      I wish to help and build the house
      Can you come and see a movie?



      864. Engleza americana are tendinta (cateodata) de a taia sufixele adjectivelor formate cu ing, din participiu (cu ed) sau genitivul saxon('s).
      Prezentam mai jos forma americana, forma englezeasca si traducerea pentru cateva exemple.

      jump rope - skipping rope - coarda (de sarit)
      racecar - racing car - masina de curse
      dial tone - dialing tone - ton (de telefonat)
      mash potatoes - mashed potatoes
      dollhouse - doll's house


      865. In engleza britanica la rauri cuvantul RAU - RIVER se pune la inceput iar in engleza americana la sfarsit.

      The River Thames - raul Tamisa (in Marea Britanie)
      River Trent - Marea Britanie
      Mississippi River - raul Mississippi (in SUA)
      Yukon River - Canada


      866. Diferente ortografice intre engleza britanica si engleza americana
      Redam mai jos schimbarile principale de ortografie, cu prima varianta fiind cea britanica.
      Diferentele de ortografie sunt cel mai ades vizibile la terminatiile unor cuvinte.
      Regulile se aplica pentru orice cuvant (cu unele exceptii), nu doar pentru cele prezentate.

      - our, - or
      colour - color - culoare, flavour - flavor - savoare; humour - humor - umor

      - re, - er
      centre - center - centru, metre - meter - metru

      - ise, -ize
      recognise - recognize - recunoaste, realize - realise - realiza

      - ogue, - og
      analogue - analog, catalogue - catalog


      867. Diferenta de cuvinte.
      Prezentam mai jos o lista de 40 de cuvinte care difera in engleza britanica fata de engleza americana

      Engleza Britanica Engleza Americana Traducerea
      AerialAntennaAntena
      AutumnFallToamna
      biscuitcookiefursec
      bonnethoodcapota
      boottrunkportbagaj
      bracessuspendersbretele
      chemist'sdrugstorefarmacie
      the cinemathe moviescinematograf
      cottonthreadata
      crossroadsintersectionintersectie
      curtainsdrapesperdele
      dust-bintrashcancaldare de gunoi
      enginemotormotor
      filmmoviefilm
      flatapartmentapartament
      ground floorfirst floorparter
      handbagpurseposeta
      holidayvacationvacanta
      illsickbolnav
      jugpitchercontainer cu lichid, ulcior
      liftelevatorlift
      lorrytruckcamion
      luggagebaggagevaliza
      maizecornporumb
      nappydiaperscutec
      pavementsidewalktrotuar
      to peepto peeka trage cu ochiul
      petrolgasolinebenzina
      postmanmaimanpostas
      pubbarbar
      queuelinecoada
      rubbereraserguma de sters
      sweetdesertdesert
      timetablescheduleorar
      tincanconserva
      torchflashlightlanterna
      trouserspantspantaloni
      waistcoatvestvesta
      wardrobeclosetsifonier
      zipzipperfermoar


      15.FALSE FRIENDS


      868. Exista in limba engleza cuvinte care seamana cu unele cuvinte din limba romana dar care au alt inteles.
      Aceste cuvinte se numesc false friends adica prieteni falsi, inselatori.
      Cand le intalnim ne bucuram ca le stim dar de fapt suntem pacaliti, fiindca insemnau altceva.
      Iata o lista de 20 astfel de cuvinte.

      NrFriendTraducereNu inseamnaCare se zice
      1actualadevaratulactualpresent
      2actuallyde faptactualpresent
      3anticgluma, farsaanticancient
      4bucketgaleatabuchetbouquet
      5directorycarte de adresedirectormanager
      6to entitlea indreptatia intitulato title
      7eventuallyin finaleventualpossibly
      8fabricmaterial textilfabricafactory
      9genialamabilgenialbrilliant
      10gustboare de vantgusttaste
      11infatuationiubire puternicainfatuareconceit
      12librarybibliotecalibrariebookstore
      13to mattera contamaterietot matter(substantiv)
      14ministerpreot, ministruministrutot minister
      15parcelpachetparcelalot of land
      16physiciandoctorfizicianphysicist
      17presentcadou, prezentprezenttot present
      18to realizea-si da seamaa realizato accomplish
      19sensibleinteleptsensibilsensitive
      20talonghearataloncoupon



      16.LUNILE ANULUI


      869. Lunile anului in engleza Se scriu totdeauna cu litera mare
      Anotimpurile insa se scriu cu litera mica.

      In December we celebrate Christmas - In Decembrie sarbatorim Craciunul.
      In the spring we celebrate Easter - Primavara sarbatorim Pastele

      January - ianuarie
      February - februarie
      March - martie
      April - aprilie
      May - mai
      June - iunie
      July - iulie
      August - august
      September - septembrie
      October - octombrie
      November - noiembrie
      December - decembrie



      17.ANOTIMPURILE IN ENGLEZA


      870. Anotimpurile in Engleza
      Se scriu cu litera mica
      La anotimpuri se foloseste prepozitia in the cand ne reperim la ceva din cadrul ei, altfel nu se articuleaza si e fara in(exemplul 3)

      spring - primavara
      summer - vara
      fall, autumn - toamna
      winter - iarna

      In the winter it snows. - Iarna ninge
      In the summer the snow melts - Primavara zapada se topeste
      This summer I will go fishing - Vara asta ma duc la pescuit.
      I hope fall doesn't come early - Sper ca toamna sa nu vina devreme.



      18.ZILELE SAPTAMANII


      871. Zilele saptaminii in engleza
      Se scriu totdeauna cu litera mare

      Se folosesc cu prepozitia on daca ne referim la ceva din ziua aceea.
      Deci de exemplu lunea se zice on Monday sau Monday in functie de context.
      I was born on a Monday. - M-am nascut intr-o zi de luni.
      Monday is a hard day - Lunea e o zi grea.

      Monday - luni
      Tuesday - marti
      Wednesday - miercuri
      Thursday - joi
      Friday - vineri
      Saturday - sambata
      Sunday - duminica

      I'll be done by Friday - Voi fi gata pana vineri
      And on Saturday I'll come visit - Si sambata vin sa te vizitez.
      Saturdays are fun - Sambetele sunt distractive.
      Monday is a hard day to stand - Lunea e o zi greu de suportat.


      Monday Tuesday, Wednesday, Thursday, Friday are weekdays
      Luni, marti, miercuri, joi, vineri sunt zile lucratoare

      Saturday and Sunday form the weekend
      Sambata si Duminica formeaza sfarsitul de saptamana (zilele nelucratoare).

      Zilele lucratoare formeaza the workweek - saptamana de lucru
      During the workweek I work, but during the weekend I relax.



      19.FORMULE DE SALUT IN ENGLEZA


      872. Formule de salut in engleza

      Intre prieteni
      Hi
      Howdy
      Hey

      si mai noul:Politicos
      Hello
      Hello, how are you? - Ce mai faci? - Cand esti introdus cuiva nou.
      Greetings - Salutari
      Good morning - Buna dimineata
      Good afternoon - Buna ziua (dupa ora 12)
      Good evening - Buna seara

      Pedant
      How do you do?



      20.FORMULE DE DESPARTIRE IN ENGLEZA


      873. Formule de despartire in engleza

      Goodbye - La revedere
      Bye - Pa
      Bye bye - Pa
      See you later - Sa ne vedem mai tarziu
      Take it easy! - Ia-o usor!
      Take care! - Ai grija(de tine)
      Catch ya later - Te prind mai tarziu
      Have fun! - Distractie placuta!



      21.URARI IN ENGLEZA


      874. Urari in engleza

      Cheers! - Noroc! (la ciocnitul de pahare)
      Good luck! - Succes! Bafta!
      Happy Birthday - La multi ani!
      Happy New Year - La multi ani! (de revelion)
      Merry Christmas! - Craciun fericit!
      Enjoy! - Pofta buna!
      Congratulations! - Felicitari!
      May you ... - Fie ca tu...
      May you have a fun trip! - Fie ca tu sa ai o excursie distractiva!
      May you have a happy life! - Fie ca tu sa ai o viata fericita!
      etc



      22.FORMULE DE POLITETE SI EXPRESII


      875. Formule de politete si expresii in engleza

      Say hi to John for me - Saluta-l pe John din partea mea!
      Don't worry! - Nu-ti face probleme!
      Hurry up! - Grabeste-te!That's all right!
      I'm sorry! - Iarta-ma!
      Excuse me! - Scuza-ma!
      That's all right! - N-are nimic!
      Bless you! - Noroc!(la stranut)
      Good luck - Noroc (vezi urari)
      Pardon? - Poftim?
      Your welcome - Cu placere
      Thank you - Multumesc
      Thanks - Merci!
      Please - Te rog!



      23.ALFABETUL SI CURIOZITATI ALE LIMBII ENGLEZE


      876. Alfabetul limbii engleze

      A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

      Urmatoarea fraza engleza contine toate literele englezesti.

      The quick brown fox jumps over the lazy dog - Vulpea iute, maronie sare peste cainele lenes



      877. English is a language in which you can turn a light on and you can turn a light off and you can turn a light out, but you can't turn a light in;

      Engleza e o limba in care poti aprinde lumina (turn on the light) poti stinge o lumina (turn off the light), poti opri o lumina (turn out the light) dar nu poti sa o predai(turn in the light)


      878. When the sun or the moon or the stars are out, they are visible, but when the lights are out, they are invisible.

      Cand soarele, luna sau stelele sunt out (afara) ele sunt vizibile, dar cand lumina e out (afara) e invizibila (e stinsa)


      879. The sun comes up and goes down, but prices go up and come down.

      Soarele vine in sus (rasare) si merge in jos(apune) dar preturile merg in sus(cresc) si vin in jos(scad)


      880. Why are people who ride motorcycles called bikers and people who ride bikes called cyclists?

      De ce oamenii care merg pe motociclete (motorcycles) sunt numiti bikers iar cei care merg pe biciclete (bikes) sunt numiti cyclists?

      881. How can a slim chance and a fat chance be the same, while a wise man and a wise guy are opposites?

      Cum poate o posibilitate slaba (adica mica) si o posibilitate grasa (tot mica) sa insemne acelasi lucru, pe cand un om intelept si un tip intelept, (cum am zice noi Desteptule!) au sensuri opuse?


      882. You have to marvel at the unigue lunacy of a language in which the house burns up as it burns down, you fill in a form by filling it out and an alarm clock goes off by going on.

      Trebuie sa te minunezi de nebunia unei limbi in care o casa arde in sus pe cand arde in jos, in care umpli (fill in) un formular, completandu-l (fill out)si un ceas desteptator suna (goes off) dupa trecerea timpului (time goes on)


      883. In what language do people recite at a play and play at a recital? Ship by truck and send cargo by ship?

      In ce alta limba oamenii recita intr-o piesa (play) si canta (play) la un recital?


      24.GRESELI FRECVENTE IN LIMBA ENGLEZA


      884. Gresit: - My sister is doctor

      My sister is a doctor - Sora mea e doctor.



      885. Gresit: I have told you all what I know.

      I have told you all (that) I know.


      886. Gresit:I realized my plan to go fishing.

      I accomplished my plan to go fishing - Mi-am realizat planul de a merge la pescuit.


      887. Gresit: Is good idea
      Gresit: I like very much

      It is a good idea - E o idee buna
      I like it very much - Imi place foarte mult


      888. Gresit: According to me, it’s a bad movie.

      In my opinion, it’s a bad movie - Dupa parerea mea.


      889. Gresit: Normally I will be there next Friday.

      I should be able to be there next Friday - In mod normal voi veni vinerea viitoare


      890. Gresit: I am working for Company X

      I work for Company X - Lucrez pentru Compania X


      891. Gresit: Except Andu, everybody was there.

      Except for Andu, everybody was there.- In afara lui Andu, au venit toti.


      892. Gresit: I love the music.

      I love music - Iubesc muzica


      893. Gresit: I have done a mistake.

      I have made a mistake. - Am facut o greseala


      894. Gresit: Please, how I go to the park?
      Gresit: Do you know where is my purse?

      Please how do I go to the park? - Va rog, cum merg in parc?
      Do you know where my purse is? - Stii unde mi-e poseta?


      25.PUNCTUATIA


      895. Folosirea virgulei (the comma) in engleza

      1. In caz de apozitie, o intercalare in propozitie care actioneaza ca o lamurire dar ar putea si sa lipseasca.
      2. Cand e o insiruire. Spre deosebire de romana se pune virgula si inainte de si
      3. Daca substantivul are mai multe adjective ele se depart prin virgula.
      Ultimul adjectiv nu are si in fata.
      4.Intre oras si tara se pune virgula: Brasov, Romania
      5 Explicatiile introductive ca si apozitiile se despart prin virgula.
      6.Intre doua propozitii independente.(juxtapunere)
      7.Se pune virgula dupa cazul vocativ.
      8.Inainte si dupa ghilimele se pune virgula daca este vorbire directa.



      896. Folosirea cratimei (the hyphen si the dash) in engleza

      The hyphen este o liniuta de unire scurta care uneste cuvinte care impreuna formeaza un nou cuvant: up-to-date, twenty-one etc.
      The dash este o liniuta lunga care poate delimita o scurta intrerupere de text, o schimbare brusca a ideii sau o rasturnare de situatii.
      .

      897. Folosirea ghilimelelor (quotation marks) in engleza

      In engleza nu se folosesc linii de dialog asa ca folosirea ghilimelelor e obligatorie.
      Daca in interiorul unui dialog cineva da alt citat, atunci se pun ghilimele simple.


      898. Folosirea punct si virgula (the semicolon) in engleza

      Se foloseste cand se despartdoua propozitii independente dar inrudite.
      Se folosesc pe post de virgula in insiruiri care deja necesita virgule.


      26.COMPUNEREA UNEI SCRISORI


      899. Elementele unei scrisori oficiale in engleza

      1. Adresa proprie - se scrie in coltul din dreapta sus
      2. Adresa destinatar - se scrie pe stanga mai jos de nivelul adresei proprii.
      3. Formula de politete
      Dear Sir or Madam - Draga Dle sau Dna - in cazul in care nu stim cine ne va citi scrisoarea
      Dear Mr X sau Dear Mrs X in caz contrar.
      4.Continutul: O fraza introductiva care sa explice scopul scrisorii: cerere, plangere etc
      5.Continutul propriu zis. Scurt si la obiedt
      6.Un paragraf de incheiere in care sa precizezi ce masura vrei sa ia destinatarul.
      7.Formula de incheiere: Yours sincerely, Yours faithfully etc
      8.Semnatura



      900. Exemple de scrisoare

      Order - Scrisoare de comanda

      123, S Figueroa Str
      San Francisco, CA

      Dear Sir,
      I would like to purchase the Encyclopedia of the Living World which I saw advertised in your company catalogue.
      I have sent the amount of ... $ to the address specified in the catalogue via Paypal
      I am hoping I will receive it in two weeks as advertised.
      Regards,
      Mr Anderson

      Letter of confirmation - Scrisoare de confirmare

      123 E Shelby Ave
      Houghton, MI 48831

      Dear Mr Anderson,
      Your order has been processed. We are pleased to inform you that your order for The Encyclopedia of the Living World should arrive on Tuesday, April 1st
      If you have any questions or comments feel free to contact us at the phone number provided.
      Thank you for shopping with us.
      Best wishes,
      Mr Jones


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