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Gramatica engleza


Scurt compendiu morfologic de gramatica engleza:
  • articolul
    • hotarat (the car - masina)
    • nehotarat
      • a boy - un baiat
      • a girl - o fata
      • an eskimo - un eschimos
  • substantivul
    • gen: masculin, feminin: (waiter, waitress - insa deobicei nediferentiat)
    • numar: singular, plural: (deobicei pluralul se formeaza cu s)
    • caz (declension)
      • nominativ: fata canta - the girl sings, o fata canta - a girl sings
      • genitiv: the girl's voice SAU the voice of the girl - vocea fetei
      • dativ: I tell the girl - Ii spun fetei
      • acuzativ: I hear the girl - O aud pe fata
  • adjectivul (descrie un substantiv)
    • propriu-zis: green hills - dealuri verzi
    • pronominal
      • demonstrativ: this man - acest barbat, that man - acel barbat
      • interogativ/relativ: what book? - care carte?/what I think - ce cred eu
      • posesiv:my book - cartea mea
      • nehotarat(indefinit): some people - niste oameni, unii oameni
    • Gradele de comparatie - ca si in romana, adjectivele propriu-zise in engleza au grade de comparatie
      • Comparatia de superioritate
        • Adjective monosilabice si bisilabice terminate in y: smart - smarter - smartest: destept - mai destept - cel mai destept
        • Adjective lungi: intelligent - more intelligent - the most intelligent: destept - mai destept - cel mai destept
      • Comparatia de inferioritate
        • smart - less smart - the least smart: destept - mai putin destept - cel mai putin destept
      • Comparatia de egalitate
        • as smart as - la fel de destept ca
      • Superlativul absolut
        • very smart - foarte destept
  • pronumele (inlocuieste un substantiv)
    • personal
      • subiectiv(nominativ): you eat - tu mananci
      • obiectiv(dativ, acuzativ)
        • dativ: tell me - spune -mi
        • acuzativ: follow me - urmeaza -ma, urmeaza pe mine; come with me - vino cu mine
    • posesiv: it is mine - este al meu
    • demonstrativ: that is a koala bear - acela e un urs koala
    • interogativ/relativ: what is that - ce e acela, who are you? - cine esti?/the man who came - barbatul care a venit
    • indefinit: somebody called - a sunat cineva
    • reflexiv: I see myself in the mirror - Ma vad in oglinda.
  • numeralul
    • cardinal: seven days - 7 zile
    • ordinal: the seventh day - a saptea zi
    • fractionar: three sevenths of it is done - 3/7 e gata
    • colectiv: a dozen eggs - o duzina de oua
    • multiplicativ: I paid him back tenfold - L-am platit inzecit
    • distributiv: they went in two at a time - au intrat cate doi
    • adverbial: I read it a hundred times - L-am citit de o suta de ori.
    • nehotarat: many people - multi oameni
  • verbul *
    • persoana
      • I sing - Eu cant; We sing - Noi cantam
      • You sing - Tu canti; Voi cantati - You sing
      • He, She sings - El, Ea canta; They sing - Ei canta
    • numar: singular (I sing, You sing, He sings), plural (We sing, You sing, They sing)
    • diateza:(active voice, passive voice)
      • activa (actiunea e facuta de subiect): He scolds the child - El cearta copilul
      • pasiva (actiunea e facuta asupra subiectului): The child is scolded - Copilul este certat
    • timp (tenses):
      • Diateza activa (Active Voice)
        • Present Tense: I scold - Eu cert
        • Present Continuous: I am scolding - Eu cert acum (actiune in desfasurare)
        • Present Perfect: I have scolded
        • Present Perfect Continuous: I have been scolding
        • Past Tense: I scolded - Am certat
        • Past Continuous: I was scolding - Eu certam (cand ceva s-a intamplat)
        • Past Perfect: I had scolded - Eu certasem
        • Past Perfect Continuous: I had been scolding
        • Future Tense: I will scold - Eu voi certa (cand se va intampla ceva)
        • Future Continuous: I will be scolding - Eu voi certa (cand se va intampla ceva)
        • Future Perfect: I will have scolded
        • Future Perfect Continuous: I will have been scolding
      • Diateza pasiva (Passive Voice)
        • Present Tense: I am scolded - Eu sunt certat
        • Present Continuous: I am being scolded - Eu sunt certat acum (actiune in desfasurare)
        • Present Perfect: I have been scolded
        • Present Perfect Continuous: Nu se foloseste
        • Past Tense: I was scolded - Am fost certat
        • Past Continuous: I was being scolded - Eu eram certat (cand ceva s-a intamplat)
        • Past Perfect: I had been scolded
        • Past Perfect Continuous: Nu se foloseste
        • Future Tense: I will be scolded - Eu voi fi certat
        • Future Continuous: nu se foloseste
        • Future Perfect: I will have been scolded - Eu voi fi fost certat
        • Future Perfect Continuous: Nu se foloseste
    • mod (mood)
      • indicativ (timpurile de mai sus) - actiune reala
      • subjonctiv - actiune ireala, dorita:
        • I wish that this be over - Imi doresc ca aceasta sa se termine - stil oficial
        • I wish that this were over - Imi doresc ca aceasta sa se termine
        • I wish that this had been over - Imi doresc ca aceasta sa se fi terminat
      • conditional - actiune dorita si exprimata printr-o conditie:
        • You should call - Ar trebui sa dai telefon
        • You should have called - Ar fi trebuit sa dai telefon
      • imperativ - actiune poruncita: Go home! - Du-te acasa!
  • adverbul (descrie un verb, un adjectiv sau un adverb)
    • he is leaving now - el pleaca acum (descrie un verb)
    • the amazingly tall building - cladirea extroardinar de inalta (descrie un adjectiv)
    • it looks very nice - arata foarte frumos (descrie un adverb)
    • Clasificarea adverbelor:
      • de timp: after - dupa, then - atunci
      • de mod: somehow - cumva, slowly - incet (a slow car moves slowly - o masina inceata se misca incet
      • de loc: above - deasupra, faraway - departe
      • de scop: consequently - in consecinta, so that - astfel incat
    • prepozitia (leaga doi termeni care nu au aceeasi functie sintactica)
      • I am going to school - ma duc la scoala
      • the book is on the table - Cartea e pe masa
      • out of town - afara din oras
      • smooth as silk - neted ca matasea
    • conjunctia (leaga doi termeni care au aceeasi functie sintactica)
      • or - sau; and - si
      • I'll leave when I want to - Plec cand vreau eu.
    • interjectia
      • What a pity! - Ce pacat!
      • Wow!; Well, well, well!

*Exista 6 verbe modale: (can, may, must, ought, shall, will). Ele sunt verbe speciale care nu asculta de regulile obisnuite ale verbelor. Ele insotesc cateodata un verb aflat la infinitiv.

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