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Timpurile verbelor in engleza


Pentru verbul in engleza timpurile difera fundamental fata de cele ale limbii romane.
De aceea nu trebuie cautate in permanenta echivalente exacte intre cele doua limbi.

Asa cum ne asteptam exista 3 timpuri de desfasurare a unei actiuni: prezent(present), trecut(past) si viitor(future).
Verbul la aceste timpuri il voi numi deocamdata simplu. Mai jos se observa ca la randul lor aceste timpuri ale verbului in engleza (tenses) pot fi: propriu-zise sau propriu-zis perfecte.
Dar si timpurile propriu-zise si propriu-zis perfecte pot fi propriu-zise sau continui.

Explicatii generale pentru timpurile verbului in engleza

  • Timp simplu - verbul reprezinta o actiune prezenta, trecuta sau viitoare nelimitata in timp.
  • Timp continuu - verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor care in momentul acela se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune.
  • Timp simplu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor
  • Timp continuu perfect - verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat prezent, trecut sau viitor si continuind sau nu in acel moment

In limba engleza nu exista conjugari ca in limbile latine (romana, franceza etc)

Verbul in engleza este fie regulat fie neregulat.
Pentru ilustrarea timpurilor in engleza vom folosi un verb regulat

Ca si in romana, verbul in engleza are 2 diateze: activa si pasiva

VERBUL IN ENGLEZA LA DIATEZA ACTIVA

Actiunea e facuta de subiect

De exemplu luam verbul to work (a munci). In engleza verbul to work e regulat: work - worked - worked
Iar verbul to fall (a cadea) e neregulat: fall - fell - fallen
Desi doar Alice in tara minunilor poate cadea cu verbul la un timp continuu (pentru ca dureaza in timp), chiar si acest verb are timpuri continui pentru ca apare in diferite expresii:

I am falling in love = Ma indragostesc
My life is falling apart = Mi se duce viata de rapa

Diferente intre timpurile verbelor regulate si neregulate nu exista. Ceea ce se poate observa la verbul neregulat este modul cum se folosesc cele trei cuvinte care definesc verbul adica: fall, fell si fallen. Pentru orice alt verb neregulat cele trei parti se inlocuiesc fiecare in parte cu cele trei parti ale verbului considerat.



To work = A munci (verb regulat)


Present Tense
I work
You work
He works
She works
We work
You work
They work
Present Continuous
I am working
You are working
He is working
She is working
We are working
You are working
They are working
Present Perfect
I have worked
You have worked
He has worked
She has worked
We have worked
You have worked
They have worked
Present Perfect Continuous
I have been working
You have been working
He has been working
She has been working
We have been working
You have been working
They have been working
Past Tense
I worked
You worked
He worked
She worked
We worked
You worked
They worked
Past Continuous
I was working
You were working
He was working
She was working
We were working
You were working
They were working
Past Perfect
I had worked
You had worked
He had worked
She had worked
We had worked
You had worked
They had worked
Past Perfect Continuous
I had been working
You had been working
He had been working
She had been working
We had been working
You had been working
They had been working
Future Tense
I will work
You will work
He will work
She will work
We will work
You will work
They will work
Future Continuous
I will be working
You will be working
He will be working
She will be working
We will be working
You will be working
They will be working
Future Perfect
I will have worked
You will have worked
He will have worked
She will have worked
We will have worked
You will have worked
They will have worked
Future Perfect Continuous
I will have been working
You will have been working
He will have been working
She will have been working
We will have been working
You will have been working
They will have been working





1.1. I work - Present Tense - Timpul Present

Verbul exprima o actiune prezenta nelimitata in timp.

1. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza


  • O actiune prezenta in derulare (mereu, cateodata sau niciodata)
  • What do you do? I work at a bank.Cu ce te ocupi? Lucrez la o banca

    She never works so late

    Ea niciodata nu lucreaza atat de tarziu


  • Un adevar absolut, chiar daca se desfasoara si in clipa asta
  • The earth spins around the sun.

    Pamantul se invarteste in jurul soarelui.


  • Se poate folosi pe post de viitor
  • The store closes at 9:00pm

    Magazinul se inchide la 9:00pm.

Viitorul din limba romana se traduce cu Present Tense in limba engleza dupa: after, before, when, as soon as, while etc daca exprima o actiune viitoare

Someday when I am big and strong.

Candva, cand voi fi mare si puternic

2. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Tense din engleza


  • Atunci cand verbul descrie o actiune care se desfasoara acum (in clipa dialogului) - atunci se foloseste Prezentul Continuu.
  • I am working in the garden

    Lucrez in gradina

Folosind verbul in engleza la prezentul continuu indica faptul ca te referi la clipa asta.
I work in the garden - inseamna ca asta e ocupatia ta. De exemplu ca esti gradinar.

Sus

1.2. I am working - Present Continuous - Prezent Continuu

Verbul exprima o actiune in derulare in prezent care se petrece simultan cu o alta actiune. Este legat de actiuni concrete.

1. Situatii in care timpul prezent din romana este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza


  • Verbul reprezinta o actiune ce se petrece in clipa asta (simultana cu momentul in care se vorbeste)
  • I am working on my new book.Lucrez la noua mea carte.

  • Verbul descrie o actiune generala dar simultana cu o alta actiune
By the time the alarm goes off I am already working.Cand suna ceasul eu deja lucrez (am inceput lucrul)

2. Situatii in care prezentul limbii romane NU este echivalent cu Present Continuous din engleza


  • Vezi cazurile timpului prezent 1.1. I work

Sus

1.3. I have worked - Present Perfect - Prezent Perfect

Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat prezent

1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect al limbii engleze


  • Daca actiunea a inceput inaintea momentului prezent si e inca in desfasurare sau daca efectul ei se vede in prezent
  • I have worked all my adult life. Am muncit toata viata mea adulta (si inca mai muncesc).

  • Daca verbul e insotit de un adverb (mereu, cateodata, niciodata etc):
  • I have never worked so late before.Niciodata nu am mai lucrat atat de tarziu (pana acum).

Atentie: Fata de 1.1. exista urmatoarea diferenta:

I never work so late. inseamna: Nu lucrez atat de tarziu (ca si in romana) adica refuzi ideea pentru ca nu lucrezi niciodata atat de tarziu, pe cand I never have worked so late before inseamna ca desi nu ai mai lucrat atat de tarziu, acum lucrezi (atat de tarziu).

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus al limbii romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect din limba engleza


Sus

1.4. I have been working - Present Perfect Continuous - Prezent Perfect Continuu

O actiune care s-a desfasurat pana acum, si va continua probabil si in viitor.

1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous din limba engleza


  • Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa in trecut, continuata in prezent, si care poate continua si in viitor
  • I have been working on the railroad
    All live long day
    I've been working on the railroad
    Just to while my time away.

    Am muncit la calea ferata
    Cat e ziua de lunga
    Am muncit la calea ferata
    Ca sa mai treaca timpul.

E un binecunoscut cantec englezesc. Am muncit la calea ferata toata ziua si o voi face probabil si in viitor.

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Present Perfect Continuous din engleza


  • Vezi cazurile timpului Present Perfect 1.3. I have worked
  • Vezi cazurile timpului Past Tense 1.5. I worked
Sus


1.5. I worked - Past Tense - Timpul Trecut

Past Tense reprezinta actiunea care s-a desfasurat in trecut si s-a terminat.

1. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza

  • Verbul reprezinta o actiune trecuta ce nu a fost intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune, nu se continua in prezent.
  • I worked till my hands hurtAm muncit pana ma dureau palmele.

    Asta e usor de inteles, Am muncit dar acum m-am oprit.

  • Deasemeni acest timp se foloseste foarte mult in povestiri (de exemplu vezi poeziile de la Literatura)

2. Situatii in care Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Tense din engleza

Exista situatii in care Past Tense din limba engleza nu se traduce prin Perfectul Compus (am muncit) din limba romana. Ca exemplu vedeti primul caz de mai sus sau binecunoscutul cantec pentru copii de mai jos.

All around the cobbler's bench
The monkey chased the weasel
The monkey thought it was all in fun
Pop! goes the weasel

In jurul mesei cizmarului
Maimuta fugarea nevastuica
Maimuta credea ca se joaca
Bum! face nevastuica

Dupa cum vedeti verbul to chase cu Past Tense chased (e verb regulat la fel ca to work) se traduce prin fugarea (Imperfect) sau fugari (considerat timpul folosit in povestiri in romaneste) iar thought(Past Tense de la to think) se traduce tot prin Imperfect.

Atentie: Daca aveti indoieli ce timp trecut al verbului sa folositi in propozitii alegeti acest timp - Past Tense. Va fi mai putin deranjanta greseala.

Sus


1.6. I was working - Past Continuous - Trecut Continuu

Past Continuous se refera la un eveniment in derulare la un moment in trecut care se petrece simultan cu un alt eveniment.

1. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Continuous din limba engleza

  • Verbul exprima o actiune in trecut care a fost intrerupta de alta actiune (ca si "munceam" pe romaneste)
  • I was working when the meteorite fell/the phone rang/you showed up. Munceam cand meteoritul a cazut/a sunat telefonul/ai aparut tu.

    I was walking in the park one day
    In the merry, merry month of May
    I was taken by surprise
    By a pair of pearly eyes
    In the merry, merry month of May

    Ma plimbam in parc intr-o zi
    In vesela, vesela luna Mai
    Am fost luat prin surprindere
    De niste ochi perlati
    In vesela, vesela luna Mai

Atentie: In cantecul de mai sus was walking este Past Continuous dar was taken nu este Past Continuous. I was taken inseamna am fost luat (este la Diateza Pasiva). Daca vrei sa exprimi verbul la Past Continuous zici I was taking.

2. Situatii in care Imperfectul (munceam) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Continuous din engleza

  • Verbul folosit nu are forma continua - atunci se foloseste deobicei Past Tense.
  • He wanted to come with us.El vroia sa vina cu noi. (was wanting e gresit)
  • Actiunea e de durata, e o rutina pe care nu o mai practicam - atunci se foloseste used to - obisnuiam sa/obisnuiai sa etc.
  • As a boy, I used to wander through the woodsFiind baiet, paduri cutreieram
  • Verbul exprima o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment dat sau anterioara unei alte actiuni tot in trecut - atunci se foloseste Past Perfect
  • I had worked as a goldminer for a long time when I finally struck it rich.Lucram de mult timp ca miner de aur cand in sfarsit am dat de bogatii.
Sus

1.7. I had worked - Past Perfect - Trecut Perfect

Verbul reprezinta o actiune inceputa anterioara unui moment trecut sau anterioara unei actiuni trecute.

1. Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) din limba romana este echivalent cu Past Perfect din engleza

  • Verbul este o actiune ce s-a terminat in trecut fata de momentul/actiunea tot trecuta la care se raporteaza
  • Emily a spus (trecut) ca lucrase in gradina (si mai vechi) in dimineata aceea
    Emily said she had worked in her garden that morning.

Atentie: La fel ca in romaneste aceste timpuri nu sunt batute in cuie.

Emily a spus ca a lucrat in gradina in dimineata aceea
Emily a spus ca lucra in gradina in dimineata aceea
Emily a spus ca lucrase in gradina in dimineata aceea
Toate aceste forme sunt des folosite iar folosirea lor in romaneste depinde (oarecum) de context.

Traducerea acestor propozitii:
Emily said she worked in the garden that morning
Emily said she was working in the garden that morning
Emily said she had worked in the garden that morning
Emily said she had been working in the garden that morning
se folosesc deasemeni in limbajul curent in engleza depinzand si ele (oarecum) de context, dar fiind interschimbabile de multe ori.

Sus

1.8. I had been working - Past Perfect Continuous - Trecut Perfect Continuu

Verbul reprezinta o actiune in curs pana la un moment dat trecut cand a fost oprit de o alta actiune a carui urmari continua si azi.

1. Situatii in care imperfectul (munceam, lucram) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza

  • Verbul exprima o actiune trecuta, ce se afla inca in desfasurare, in momentul cand s-a produs o alta actiune tot din trecut.
They had been working on the new house before the fire destroyed it(Ei)lucrau la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc
He had been working slowly before hearing of the new deadline.(El)muncea incet inainte sa afle de noul termen limita.

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul (muncisem, lucrasem) limbii romane este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza

They had been working on the new house for many months before the fire destroyed it(Ei) lucrasera luni de zile la casa cea noua inainte sa fie distrusa de foc

Situatii in care mai mult ca perfectul si/sau imperfectul din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Past Perfect Continuous din engleza

Sus


1.9. I will work - Future Tense (I am going to work) - Timpul Viitor

Verbul reprezinta o actiune viitoare nelimitata in timp.

1. Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza

  • Daca verbul reprezinta o actiune in viitor si nu va fi intrerupta, nu e concomitenta cu alta actiune folositi Future Tense.
  • I will work OK? Am sa muncesc, BINE?

    Someday when I am big and strong
    I will walk that road and sing a song
    I will sing of roads so green and wide
    That turn and bend from side to side
    I will sing of roads that turn and bend
    That go from town to rainbow's end

    Intr-o zi cand voi fi mare si puternic
    Voi merge pe acel drum si voi canta un cantec
    Voi canta despre drumuri verzi si late
    Care se indoaie si serpuiesc dintr-o parte in alta
    Voi canta despre drumuri serpuitoare
    Care merg din oras pana la capatul curcubeului

Atentie: vezi (1.1 I work) pentru primul vers din poezia de mai sus

Situatii in care verbul la viitor (voi munci) din limba romana NU este echivalent cu Future Tense din engleza

Cand verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor - atunci se foloseste Future Continuous 1.10. I will be working

I will be working in Paris next year

Voi lucra la Paris la anul

Un alt mod de a exprima viitorul e folosind to be going to - intentionez sa

I am going to wait for him at the station

Il voi astepta la gara.

Sus

1.10. I will be working - Future Conntinuous - Viitor Continuu

Verbul reprezinta o actiune in derulare la un moment dat in viitor

She will be coming round the mountain when she comesCand vine, (ea) va veni in jurul muntelui
Sus


1.11. I will have worked - Future Perfect - Viitor Perfect


Echivalentul lui voi fi lucrat

I will have worked for 20 years next month. Luna viitoare eu o sa fi lucrat de 20 de ani.

Sus


1.12. I will have been working - Future Perfect Continuous - Viitor Perfect Continuu

Acest timp nu prea se foloseste, pune mai mult accentul pe perioada lunga de timp decat 1.11 Future Continuous

Se traduce tot prin voi fi lucrat, si ca toate formele de timpuri continue implica o actiune in derulare

By 2015 he will have been working for 40 yearsIn 2015 el va fi lucrat de 40 de ani

Sus

VERBUL IN ENGLEZA LA DIATEZA PASIVA

Actiunea e suportata de subiect. Diateza pasiva exista si in limba romana

De exemplu verbul to wash - a spala (verb regulat: wash - washed - washed)

Eu spal rufele saptamanal (Diateza Activa) devine Rufele sunt spalate saptamanal (de mine)
2.1 I wash the laundry weekly - The laundry is washed weekly (by me).
2.2 I am washing laundry now - The laundry is being washed now (by me).
2.3 I have washed the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.4 I have been washing the laundry - The laundry has been washed (by me).
2.5 I washed the laundry yesterday - The laundry was washed yesterday (by me).
2.6 I was washing the laundry - The laundry was being washed (by me).
2.7 I had washed the laundry- The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.8 I had been washing the laundry - The laundry had been washed (by me).
2.9 I will wash the laundry- The laundry will be washed (by me).
2.10 I will be washing the laundry - The laundry will be washed (by me).
2.11 I will have washed the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).
2.12 I will have been washing the laundry - The laundry will have been washed (by me).








Verbul auxiliar englezaDiateza Pasiva
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